Credit Management Policy

Origin of the Report

The report titled “Credit Management Policy”-A case study on BASIC Bank Ltd. During the internship, the student is required to prepare a report on the organization where he has been attached. He has also to undertake a management problem/ are of investigation of the organization for reporting.

Objective of the Report

The principal intent of this report is to examine Credit Policy of BASIC Bank Ltd. In particular the objectives are as follows:
1. To have a glace at the commercial banking system in Bangladesh.
2. To examine the present banking system in Bangladesh.

3. To get acquainted with the loan structure, size, profile of sector wise outstanding position of loans and system of loan classification of BASIC.
4. To know the deposit behavior of NCBs, FCBs, PCBs and BASIC bank and to cross-examine any structural changes regarding deposit behavior.
5. To examine the credit operations by our commercial banking system.
6. To explain the procedures, systems of credit management and appraisal of BASIC Bank.
7. To find out the nature and size of problem loans in BASIC Bank.
8. To find out the causes of problem loans.
9. To analyze the effects of problem loan on income of BASIC bank Ltd.
10. To evaluate the various loans programs of BASIC bank which includes Industrial, Trade and Commerce, Transport etc.
11. To inspect the recovery of loans by BASIC Bank.
12. To examine whether the attributes of gook performance are observed in BASIC bank.


The report concerns about the credit policy in BASIC Bank. The study is made primarily only on the basis of the observation of BASIC’s operations in its Bangshal Branch.

Data sources

Primary sources of the data collections were direct observations, face-to-face i8nterview with both the customers and the staff, obtaining responses from the customers through questionnaire. A model of the questionnaire is including in the appendix. Secondary data is collected from Annual Report, Booklets and credit manual of BASIC Bank Limited and a report titled “Credit Policy” in study Bangladesh Small Industries and Commerce Bank Ltd- by Dr. Jamal uddin Ahmed.


To prepare the report following methodology is adopted:

a. Collection of data
Required information or data were collected mainly form the secondary sources. The sources are:

 Annual reports and performance reports of the Bank
 Various files and documents of Credit and industrial Credit Division of BASIC Bangladesh limited.
 Articles related to problem loans in different journals and magazines.
 Study of files and documents of some default borrowers of the main Branch of BASIC

The primary source of data and information was the interviews with managers and officials of the Head Office and Main Branch of Basic.
Necessary data were segregated from the source material and collected data were complied and processed to prepare the report.

Chapter Two

Profile of BASIC

The Bank of Bangladesh Small Industries & Commerce Limited (BASIC) established as Banking Company under the Companies Act 1993 launched its operation 1989, 21 January, incorporated by 1988, August 2. The Banking companies Act 1991 govern it.
At the outset, the Bank started as a joint venture enterprise of the Bangladesh Credit Commerce (Bcc) foundation with 70 percent shares and Government of Bangladesh (GOB) with the remaining 30 percent shares. The BCC Foundation being non functional following the closure of the BCCI, the Government of Bangladesh took over 100 percent ownership of the Bank on 4th June 1992. The bank was established as the policy makers of the country felt the urgency for a bank in the private sector for financing Small scale Industries (SSI).
BASIC is unique in its objectives. It is a blend of development and Commercial Banks. The memorandum and Articles of Association of the Band stipulate that 50% of Loan able funds shall be invested in Small and Cottage industries Sector.

2.2 Functions
The Banks offers

 Term Loans to industries especially to Small-Scale enterprise.
 Full fledged commercial banking Service including collection of deposit, short term trade finance, Working capital finance in processing an manufacturing units and facilitating international trade.
 Financing & Technical support to Small Scale Industries (SSI) in order to enable them to run their enterprises successfully.
 Micro Credit to the urban poor trough Linkage with NGOs with a view to facilitating their access to the formal financial market for the mobilization of resources.
 Financing in import and export business like other commercial like other Commercial leeks.
 General banking facility like CD, FDR, SB, STD, BCD, FCA etc available here.

2.3 Corporate Strategy

 Financing establishment of Small units of industries and business and facilitate their growth.
 Small Balance sheet size composed of quality assets.
 Steady and sustainable growth.
 Investment in a cautions way.
 Adoption of new banking technology.

2.4 Organizational Goal

 To employ funds for profitable purposes in various fields with special emphasis on small-scale industries.
 To undertake project promotion to identify profitable areas of investment.
 To search for newer avenues for investment and develop new products to suit such needs. To establish linkage with other institutions which are engaged in financing micro enterprises.

2.5 Lending Criteria

Entrepreneur/ Promoter has to be creditworthy and competent enough to run the proposed project efficiently.

The project should be viable in line with organizational, Technical, commercial, financial and economic points of view.

 Technical process proposed should preferably be a proven one.
 The project should be technical sound and environment friendly.
 Technology transfer in case of borrowed know how ought to be ensured.
 Building should be well planned and well constructed at a suitable location.

 Market prospect and potential for the product has to be fully assured at competitive prices.
 Marketing channels existing for the product should be accessible to the entrepreneurs.

 There should be reasonable debt –equity ratio as determined by the Bank on individual case basis.
 The project should be found viable in financial analysis done by the Bank.

 The project should benefit the national economy by creating employment and increasing income.
 Savings/Earnings of foreign currency may give an additional dimension.

2.6 Organizational Structure
To achieve its organizational goals, the bank conducts its operation in accordance with the major policy guidelines laid down by the Board of Directors, the highest policy making body. The day-to-day operation of the blank is looked after by the management.

2.6.2 Management
The management is headed by the managing Directors. He is assisted by the General Manager and Departmental heads in the head office. BASIC is different in respect o hierarchical structure from other bank in that it is much more vertically integrated as for as reporting to the chief Executive is concerned. The Branches in charge of the Bank report directly to the Managing Director and for functional purposes, to the Head of Department consequently, quick decision making in disposal o9f cases is ensured.

2.7 Resource & Capabilities

BASIC is well prepared to and capable of meting the demand for a broad range of banking services. It has got adequate resources, both human and physical, to provide the customers with best possible services.

2.7.1 Physical and Technological Resources

A great dial of investment fir devolving the physical resource base of the bank has been made. BASIC has its presence in all the major industrial and commercial hubs of Bangladesh in order to cater to the needs of industry and trade. At present, there are twenty- five conveniently located branches throughout Bangladesh. There are 9 branches in the capital city of Dhaka, 6 in Chittagong and one each in Narayangonj, Narshingdi, Rajshahi, Sandspur, Bogra, Khulna, Jessore, Sylhet, Moulivibazar and Commilla.

Major features of these branches:

 Fully computerized accounts maintenance.
 Well-decorated and air-conditioned facilities.
 A fully operational computer network, which is currently being implemented. The work of LAN and WAN installation to facilitate fast communication between the branches and the head Office is in progress.
 Money counting machine for making cash transaction easy and prompt.

2.7.2 Human Resources

BASIC Bangladesh Ltd. has a well-diversified pool of human resources, which is composed of people with high academic background. Most employees are comparatively young in age yet nature in experience. In the increasingly competitive market for highly skilled staff, we are focusing on providing a stimulating compare environment and an attractive compensation package. At present the total employee strength is 497 .


The Bank follows a strict recruitment policy in order to ensure that only the best people are recruited. The bank, so far, has recruited four batches of entry-level management staff, all of who have got excellent academic Background.


Intensive training program, on a regular basis, is being imparted to employees of both management and non-management levels to meet the challenges in the banking industry and to help employees to adapt the changes and new working conditions.
During the year 2001, a total of 100 employees of the Bank were provided with training in various fields. Out of them 8 employees participated in training courses held abroad.

2.8 Financial Resources

Like any other financial intermediaries, BASIC is no exception in performing its cure function viz. Mobilization of fund and utilizing such mobilized fund for profitable purposes.

2.9 Performance of Bank

The performance BASIC has been satisfactory since its inception respect to all the measurement parameters. A good year for the Bank again. It performed fairly in 2001 in spite of severe competition in the banking sector of the country. The Board of Directors was happy with the overall performance of the Bank, particularly for maintaining quality of assets and improving shareholders value.

The total assets of the Bank increased to Taka 9,722 million at end 2001 from Taka 7,731 million in the previous year.
The growth rate was 26 percent. Deposit rose from Taka 5,845 million in 2000 to Taka 7,513 million in 2001 showing a growth rate of 29 percent.

The Banks borrowing increase by 5 percent in 2001 compared to 51 percent growth in 2000.Borrowing facility from an established credit line of Bangladesh Bank was utilized for providing greater amount of term loans in 2001 compared to the previous year. Loans and advances stood at Taka 6,261 million as on December 31, 2001 against Taka 4,619 million at the end of 2000, recording a growth rate of 36 percent compared to 17 percent in the previous year. All out efforts were made to improve the recovery rate and control non-performing loans and advances. The proportion of non-performing loans to total loans decreased slightly to 3.67 percent in 2001 from 3.73 percent in 2000. Emphasis in the maintenance of quality of assets remained the centerpiece of BASIC Banks business strategy.

2.10 Strategies and programs for the future

The banking sector has never been so competitive. More so because new banks are trying to proceed very aggressively. It is apprehended that competition will be tougher in years to come. The management, being filly aware of it, is making all out effort to face the unfolding challenges of the future. Several issued are being looked into in this regard.

BASIC is committed to developing the capabilities of its employees. All the officers are being imparted training in turn. More investment for the development of human resource is being contemplated. Apart from this, the recruitment of new officers with excellent academic career is planned in order to instill dynamism.

Investment for the development of physical resource is also being made. Process for the development of a fully operational networking system that includes installation of both LAN and WAN is underway. BASIC bank has its own software developed in 1991. Already Local Area Network (LAN) has been installed in Head Office and 15 branches of the Bank. Wide Are Network (WAN) has been set up between Head Office and branches using X.28 leased line of BTTB. The Bank has undertaken a project for introduction of “Automated Teller Machine” and “Debit Card” at its 16 branches in Dhaka and Chittagong.

The project will be implemented in 2002.Once completed, the valued customers will be able to withdraw or deposit cash from any branch in Dhaka and Chittagong during office hours, withdraw cash, transfer funds and pay utility bills at any time from any ATM and pay their shopping bills using a debit card. The Bank is considering offering new financial products in conformity with the needs of the present and prospective clients to sustain in the long run. To meet the challenge of the next century the management has been advised to prepare a comprehensive perspective plan.

2.11 Dividend

In view of the robust financial results the Board is pleased to propose, subject to approval at the Annual General Meeting, Payment of final cash dividend of Tk. 26.67 per share which, when added to the interim dividend of Tk. 23.33 per share paid on January 1, 2002 gives a total dividend of Tk. 50.00 per share for the year. Total dividend for the year comes to Tk… 150 million. This is 25 percent higher than the last year’s dividend of Tk. 120 million, which included stock dividend of Tk. 60 million.

2.12 Risk Management

In banking environment no reward can be expected without risk. In this backdrop, the management has established a formal program for managing the business risk faced by the Bank. Considering the present non-performing loan position of the country, BASIC is very much cautious about its investment.

Every loan proposal is placed under careful scrutiny before approval. Proposals of large amount of loans need approval of the Board of Directors. Credit lines are established for each borrower group. Internal Audit team and exercise close monitoring on every loan transaction.

Management regularly reviews the Banks overall assets and liabilities structure and makes necessary changes in the mix of balance sheet. The Bank also has a liquidity policy to ensure financial flexibility to cope with unexpected future cash demands.

Chapter Three: Commercial Banking in

3.1 Historical perspective of the commercial Banking

At the time of liberation there were around thirteen domestic scheduled banks and a few foreign banks operating in the region of Bangladesh. Two of the smaller commercial banks, namely, Easter Banking Corporation and Eastern Mercantile Bank had their head offices in the erstwhile East Pakistan. The major banks only their regional offices in Dhaka. The management accepts the two East Pakistani banks were, however, almost solely in the hands of non-Bengalis. All these banks except National Bank of Pakistan were in the private sector. The Government owned even National Bank of Pakistan only to the extent of 25 percent. However, the management of the National Bank of Pakistan was almost totally free from interference by the Government. Interestingly, the then central bank namely, the state bank of Pakistan was owned by general public to the extent of 49 percent.

After the emergence of Bangladesh, all the banks except the foreign banks were nationalized. The commercial banks were merged into sox larger banks namely, sonali, Janata, Agrani, Rupali, Pubali and Uttara bank. With the exodus of Pakistanis who manned the top and upper middle echelon of management, a sudden vacuum emerged in the effective top management of the nationalized banks. As the banks departed from following the standard norms and practices, the state of affairs of the banks became vulnerable leading to large-scale loan defaults. The loans taken by the public sector bodies like Bangladesh jute Mills Corporation, Bangladesh Textile mills corporation and other state- owned enterprises were stuck- up at these institutions used bank loans mostly for loss- financing.

Considering the backwardness of agriculture as well as its high importance in the overall economy, drive was made at the instance of Government to launch Tk. 100 core special agricultural credit programs in 1977. It was crash program to disburse credit to the cultivators as crop loan. As the NCBs were frawn in a big way for agricultural loan for the first tim, in fact, it paved the way for large-scale default culture in this respect mainly bemause of lack of experience in dealing with agricultural credit by the NCBs.

During early 1980s the role of banks in the private sector was felt as an important factor to invigorate the economy.

A good number of new private banks were allowed to function. Banks following Islamic tents also started funetiong. Most notable development was de-nationalization of two of the six NCBs,namely, Uttara and Pubali.A few more foreign banks were also allowed to operate in the capital and port cities.

During mid 1980s when the private banks started to expand its lending activities, these banks experienced somewhat new situation. The sponsor directors were especially interested to use their influences for taking the loans for their own business houses or for
enterprises owned by their relatives or accomplices. Though the executives were free from the dictates of the bureaucrats, but had to show their allegiance to their new masters.

To correct the above-mentioned problems and to ensure the maximum benefits that should be achieved from banking sector in 1990, the Bangladesh Government started with a five-year financial sector reform project with the following ten agenda:

a) Introduce a more liberal interest rate policy
b) Introduce and implement an improved loan classification system
c) Introduce capital adequacy requirement and enforce these on the banking system
d) Develop improved supervision systems for identify problem areas within the banking system
e) Develop money market instruments and initiate the auctioning of a short term money market instrument
f) Improve the operation of the capital markets and take the regulatory steps needed to improve such markets
g) Clean up the jute debt in the commercial banking system and eliminate any risk to the commercial bank portfolio
h) Reform the NCBs in a three step process: 1) Recapitalize the NCBs2) Improve their operating systems 3) Develop strategic approaches to their future development
i) Improve loan recovery through introduction of better legislation
j) and courts to collect delinquent loans, improve the bankruptcy law to ease the problems of liquidating companies, improve the flow of credit information for new loans, and rtequire4 the NCBs to improve their debt collection

k) Initiate an immediate program of improvement to manpower through upgraded training for bankers

In addition, the following initiatives were also taken under FSRP:

Performance planning system (PPS): A performance planning system (PPS) has been introduced in the NCBs under which participants (branch managers) are require to develop- a number of clearly specified, measurable and dated goal statement to b4e accomplished over the following year.

New loan ledger (NLL): As the loan ledgers of the NCBs contain adequate data to monitor their loan portfolio effectively, a new system called new loan ledger (NLL) has been introduced. To correct record keeping at the account-by account level (FSRP) Designed the New loan ledger (NLL) system.

New MIS: FSRP develop a new Management information system (MIS) for banks including an Executive summary Reports, which contains critical management information. The number of monthly MIS reports thus in produced stood at 83 by October 1984.

Although the FSRP (1990-95) introduced a number of changes in the banking system, there is still a lot of be dine. Accordingly, the Govt. initiated the commercial banking-restructuring project (CBRP) in 1997 to ensure a continuity of the reforms as well as to attain the following objectives:

1) Strengthening bank management with increased accountability, improved auditing and loan management practices and procedures
2) Improving the legal environment for dint recovery
3) Modernizing the technology in the banking sector
4) Restoring the capital adequacy of banks on risk weighted assets
5) Improving income position of bank’s
6) Strengthening the supervisory and monitoring capacity of the central bank.

3.2 Commercial Banking at a Present

Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of the country, is the guardian of banking institutions of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bank (BB) head office is located at Motijheel, Dhaka. There are two branches in Dhaka and there is one branch in each of the divisions. The structure of the banking system is present in table-1. There are 4 NCBs operating with 2 average branches and 13 PCBs operating with 89 average branches.

3.3 Some selected Indicators of Commercial Banks

3.3.1 Branch Expansion

Branch expansion by commercial banks: Branch expansion by NCBs shows that they are growing very slow. Compared to other two categories of Bank PCBs has grown very fast in the period 1990-2001.Partivularly in years 95 and 96 the highest number of commercial banks have bee opened.
FCBs show the slowest branch expansion rate among the three categories of commercial banks. Their urban-based operation strategy is the main reason for their slow growth.

3.3.2 Employment Generation

Employment generation by the commercial banks: The most employment-creating bank under the study period is PCBs. As their branches grow more in number other than two categories of banks so they create more employment other than two categories of banks. In case of NCBs a cutback strategy of their manpower was found to restore viability among them. It is evident from the tale that in year 1994 a huge number of employees (1580).
Have joined their jobs in NCBs and simultaneously 208 employees left their job from PCBs. More interestingly, in the following year 823 left from NCBs and 978 joined in PCBs.
As number of branches grows slowly in case of FCBs so their employment generation rate is also slow. However, from 1997 and onwards there are some changes in this track.

3.3.3 Net profit performance

Net profit figures show that FCBs are the moist profitable banks. They make a positive net profit. But NCBs make loss for the years 2001 to 1993 and PCBs modes loss for the year’s 1991 to1994. Also the profit figures for NCBs and PCBs does not show trend, they are volatile over the years. But the profit figures for FCBs are gradually increasing year after year.

3.3.4 Total Productivity

Total productivity measures the ratio of input and output. In case of banks productivity means the ratio of income and expenditure. If income substantially outweighs expenditure then productivity of the bank is good. Table-5 shows productivity ratio for foreign commercial banks, private commercial banks and nationalized commercial banks. If productivity ratio is above one it is an admirable indication. This ratio for foreign banks shows that they are executing at a very good level of productivity. Their productivity is above 2 for they years 93 through 96. Productivity of private banks is reasonable.

Nationalized Commercial banks are impotent for the years 91, 92 and 93. Comparison among foreign banks, nationalized commercial banks and private banks show that foreign banks are most productive, then private banks, and then nationalized commercial banks. The lesson that should be learnt from this analysis is that PCBs, NCBs should substantially reduce their expenditure. Expenditure can be curtailed by installing computer database, reducing human resource expenditure can be curtailed by installing computer datable, and reducing human resource expenditure and installing computer based internal control system.

Chapter Four: Mobilization of funds by the
Commercial Banks

4.1 Average Deposit per A/C

Saving is very important for financing economic activities. In our country there exists a wide gap between saving and investment. To reduce the gap between saving and investment and to reduce the dependence on foreign assistance local deposit mobilization is a must. In this respect different categories to commercial bank can play a vital role. Average deposit per Account (Table-6) was very good for the year 1980 and 1985. It was then declining for all the commercial banks. It may be due to the reason that numbers of commercial banks are increasing and so the number of accounts. But the deposits are not growing at the same pace. Only foreign banks are showing a good trend: their deposits are increasing with the increase in number of accounts. NCBs are very week in respect of average deposit per account. This may be due to the increase in number of accounts but stagnation in deposits.

4.2 Rural Deposit Expansion

Increase in rural depots is clearly evident from table-7. Rural savings show an increasing trend from 1980 to 1995 and it declined in 1999. Due to the increase in bank branches, more rural people are now enjoying commercial banking service. A drop in rural deposit in 2001 may be due to political instability and low level of income in this year.

4.3 Deposit Distributed by size of A/C

Deposit distributed by size of accounts (Table-3) shows that a large percentage of total accounts mobilize deposit of small savers and obviously the percentage of total amount is also smaller.

In 1980, 98.78% accounts hold 41.64 % deposits. Also the accounts of medium-size savers increase gradually. A Small number of accounts hold a larger percentage of deposit. In 1980, .o66% account mobilizes 33.45% deposits and in 1999 64% account mobilizes 50.38% deposits.

This gives the clear indication that large amount of wealth is concentrated in fewer hanks. This gives the clear indication that large amount of wealth is concentrated in fewer hanks. Also is less costly to handle smaller number of large amounts than large number of small accounts

4.4 Deposits per Employee

Deposit per employee (table-4) for different categories of banks shows that foreign banks are most efficient in collecting deposits. Deposit per employee in 1993 was Tk. 164.6 lakhs, which is 6.06 times higher than NCBs and 3.83 times higher than PCBs. So foreign banks are efficient in product diversification and customer satisfaction. In 1999 deposit per employee for FCBs is Tk. 329.21 lakhs, which is 6.98 times higher than NCBs, 5.39 times higher than PCBs.

Chapter Five: Credit Policy, Credit Analysis & Evaluation

5.1 Introduction
BASIC Bank Limited is a new generation Bank. It is committed to provide high quality financial services/products to contribute to the growth of G.D.P of the country through stimulating trade & Commerce, accelerating the peace of industrialization, boosting up export, creation employment opportunity for the educated youth, poverty alleviation, raising standard of living of limited income group and over all sustainable socioeconomic development of the country.

In achieving the aforesaid objectives of the Bank, Credit operation of the Bank is of paramount importance as the greatest share of total revenue of the Bank is generated from it, maximum risk is centered in it and even the very existence of Bank depends on prudent management of its credit port-folio. The failure of a commercial Bank is usually associated with the problem in credit portfolio ad is less often the result of shrinkage in the value of other assets. As such, credit portfolio not only featured dominates in the assets structure of the Bank, it is critically important to the success of the Bank also. To provide a broad guide line for the Credit Operation towards achieving the objectives of the Bank, for efficient and profitable deployment of its mobilized and to the Credit portfolio in the most efficient way, a clearly defined, well-planned, comprehensive and appropriate Credit policy and control guidelines of the Bank is a prerequisite.

In view of the above, this Credit Policy and Control Guidelines of the Bank has been prepared which is subject to amendment, revision, re-adjustment and refinement from time to time as may be warranted by the change of circumstances due to passage of time to time the requirement of the bank.

The purpose of this policy statement, which replaces all previous ones, is to set out the credit policies of the board of Directors. The policies are described under the following headings: –

 Credit Principles
 Global Credit portfolio limits
 Credit Categories
 Types of Credit activities
 Credit approval
 Credit administration
 Credit monitoring and review

5.2 Definition of Credit Policy

The credit policy of any banking institution is a combination of certain accepted time tested standards, and some other dynamic factors determined by the realities of varying and changing situations in the market place. The accepted standards relate to the aspects of security and liquidity whereas the dynamic factors relate to such other aspects as the nature of risk, interest margins, credit concentration, credit dispersal, and bank’s own capabilities.
It is, therefore, necessary that the credit policy is kept under constant review by the Head office Credit committee which is responsible for evolving and recommending a sound, healthy and realistic credit policy and its due implementation.

As is true for any other institution, BASIC may have certain unique characteristic relating to its operations, such as its age, and geographical concentration. These unique features may require certain amount of flexibility in the credit policy, but as a rule, the general standards of security and liquidity should not be allowed to be impaired and the operations must be carried out in strict conformity with local laws and supervisory requirements as stipulated. Credit policy lays down the basic principal and broad parameters of the lending operations.

The key to a sound, healthy and profitable credit operation, however, lies in the quality of judgment and sense of proportion of the officers making lending decisions, and their knowledge of the borrowers and the market place. The following pages contain only a statement of the basic principles of BASIC’s credit policy. Reference may be made to the following other documents existing for the operation and administration aspects of management of the credit function:
Advance manual: It describes elaborately the standard concepts and applicable systems and procedures relation to the credit operation. (Manual of BCCI group who are providing Technical and Management Consultancy is being adopted being a standard credit manual.)
Administrative Booklet on Credit Approval Authority: This lays down the credit approval limits approved by the Board of Directors for various functional levels and the relative guidelines for their operation.

5.4 Basic Principles of Loan & Advances in BASIC Bank


1. Aggregate loans and advances shall not exceed times the Bank s net worth or 65% of customers deposits whichever is lower ( excluding loans and advances covered by specific counter – finance arrangements ) .
2. Within the aggregate limit of loans and advances as mentioned in (1) above 50% of lending will be small industry sector in accordance with prescribed norms of the government and the central bank in terms of the banks objectives with 50% to the commercial sector. No term loans will be approved for the commercial sector. Exceptions will be rare and will require approval of the Executive Committee.
3. All lending will be adequately secured with acceptable security and margin requirement as laid down by the Head office credit committee.
4. The bank shall not incur any uncovered foreign exchange risk (currency exposure) in the lending of funds.
5. The bank shall not incur any risk of exposure in respect of unmatched rates of Interest of funding of loans and advances beyond 15% of outstanding loans and Advances .
6.End- use of working capital facilities will be closely monitored to ensure lending used for the purpose for which they were advanced
7.Country risk in loans and advances will be accurately identified and shall be within the country limits if any approved for the bank .
The same treatment will be given to country risk arising out of contingent liabilities relating to Letters of credit and letters of guarantee .
8.Loans and advances shall be normally funded from customers deposits of a permanent nature , and not out of short term temporary funds of borrowings from other banks or through short term money market operations .
9.The aggregate outstanding loans and advances ( excluding loans advances covered By specific counter – finance arrangement ) shall be dispersed according to the following guidelines (subject to item above whereby 50% of lending being to small industry sector ) :

(a) Short term commercial lending ( to include self Liquidating and other short term finance to retail And wholesale business clients to finance their usual Domestic and international trade \ shipping of goods ).This category to include working capital to hotel and tourism
(b) Facilities to shipping and transport ( facilities for the purchase and construction of ship / vessels And other modes of transport both by land and air )
10. Spreads over cost of funds on loans and advances and commissions and fees on other transactions should be commensurate with the rating of the borrower, quality or risk and the prevailing market conditions.
11. Credit risk evaluation will include: An accurate appraisal of risk in any credit exposure is highly subjective matter involving quantitative and qualitative judgments. The financial statements of the borrower do not always provide a complete picture of the borrower.
Therefore the bank has to use all financial data available and combine this with a number of qualitative factors analyzing the borrower’s financial position. In analyzing any credit proposal the analyst should follow THREE distinct and logical steps to conclude on and make appropriate recommendations.

These are:
Historical Analysis (Identify nature of risk):
Evaluate the past performance of the borrower. Determine the major risk factors and how they have been mitigated in the past. Identify factors in the borrower’s present Condition and past performance which may foreshadow difficulties or indicate likelihood of success in his ability to repay the loan, at a future time.
Forecast (Judging future degree of risk):
Having identified the nature of risk involved and how these are mitigated, make a reasonable forecast of the probable future conditions of the borrower and conclude on his ability service the proposed level of debt.

Debt structure and protection:
Assess the borrower’s credit worthiness and prepare a proposal for structuring a credit facility that can be repaid or amortized given the borrower’s assets or his projected Cash flow and the facility offering adequate protection against loss and control of the lending relationship.

Format of credit analysis:

All credit proposals are to be analyzed by the analyst as per standard credit analysis that are specified in the APPENDIX – 1. The detail of the analysis is focused on that part and also in other charters.
(a) Prevalent credit practices in the market place.
(b) Credit worthiness, background and track record of the borrower
(c) Financial standing of the borrower supported by financial statements and other documented evidence.
(d) Legal justification and implications of applicable laws.
(e) Effect of any applicable regulations and laws.
(f) Purpose of the loan/purpose.
(g) Tenure of the loan/facility.
(h) Viability of the business proposition.
(i) Cash flow projections.
(j) Quality and adequacy of security, if available.
(k) Risk taking capacity of the borrower.
(l) Entrepreneurship and managerial capabilities of the borrower.
(m) Reliability of the sources of repayment.
(n) Volume of risk in relation to the risk taking capacity of the Bank or company concerned.
(o) Profitability of the proposal to the Bank or company concerned.

Loan Department Operation:

This part of this policy contains instructions covering the details of various types of loans and advances of the Bank, the documents to be obtained, accounting record to be maintained, process of the Loan Department, which is responsible for processing and servicing all advances as well as maintaining the records connected with the function.

Main functions of Credit Department:

a) Interviewing the prospective borrower.
b) Receiving the credit information assembled and placed in the Customer’s Credit File.
c) Processing and sanctioning of credit facilities to the customer.
d) Disbursement of credit facilities to borrowers in accordance with established procedures
e) Recording credit facilities in the Register / Card.
f) Preparing “ENTRY TICKETS” (Voucher) pertaining to credit facilities disbursed and passing to General Ledger Accounts.
g) Controlling of securities and their proper custody.
h) Maintenance / Filling of Borrower’s Loan Card / Register.
i) Follow up and recovery of credit as per due date.
j) Computation and checking of interest accrued on loans and advances and preparation of entry ticket thereof.
k) Preparing of “ENTRY TICKETS” (Voucher) for credit repaid and passing the same to the corresponding General Ledger Accounts.


The following types of credit facilities are generally allowed by the Bank to the individuals, partnership firms, companies, corporations and others, either on demand, time or self liquidating basis and are carried on the Bank’s

General Ledger:

a) Loans:
i. Demand Loans
ii. Time loans
iii. Term loans (more than one year)
b) Overdrafts:
i. Against pledge of goods /stocks
ii. Against hypothecation of goods/stocks.
iii. Against any other permissible securities.
c) Other advances:
i. Against Import bills (BLC)
ii. Against Imported Merchandise (LIM)
iii. Against Work Order
iv. Against Other Securities.
d) Letters of Credit
e) Letter of Guarantee.
These are discussed below in brief:
Demand Loans:
Demand loan is granted by the bank against foreign bills under collection and against clearing cheque under collection.
Term loans:
If any loan is extended over a period exceeding one year, it is called “Term Loan”.
These loans are usually made to large well established business enterprise for Capital financing, such as setting up of industry, balancing modernization of existing plant / merchandise of industries, purchase of equipment etc. Covering the repayment period beyond one year.

O/D against hypothecation of goods/ stocks / plant & machineries:

Under this method, facilities are extended to borrower on his signing a letter of hypothecation, creating a charge against the goods/products, plant & machineries etc. Hypothecated, for the amount of agreed limit of the debt subject to credit / margin restrictions. The control / possession as well as the ownership of the hypothecated goods / products etc. is retained by the borrower but binding himself to surrender possession.
Products etc. is retained by the borrower but binding himself to surrender possession of the goods to the Bank as and when called upon to do so. The Bank only acquires a right or interest over the goods hypothecated.
The Bank, therefore, almost always insist on furnishing collateral securities by way of legal or equitable mortgage of immovable properties and or guarantees where deemed fit.

5.5 Credit Principles

The following are the principles to be adopted for lending authority, approval, monitoring and control on a basis consistent with the global operational objectives and business strategies of the Bank.
A. General: The Bank shall provide suitable credit services and products for he markets in which it operates.
Loans and advances shall normally be financed from customers’ deposits and not out of temporary funds or borrowing from other banks.
Credit will be allowed in a manner, which wills in no way compromise the Bank’s standards of excellence and to the customers who will complement such standards.
All credit extension must copy with the requirements of Bank’s Memorandum & Articles of Association, Banking Companies Act 1991 as amended from time to time, Bangladesh Banks instruction $ other applicable rules $ regulations.
B. Structural: The authority stricture for extension of Credit should enable effective adaptation to changes in the economic, technological, regulatory and competitive environment within which the Bank operates.
A. Performance: The conduct and administration of the loan portfolio should contribute, within defined risk limitation, to the
B. Bank’s achievement of profitable growth and superior return on the Bank’s capital.
Credit advancement shall focus on the development and enhancement of customer relationships and shall be measured on the basis of the total yield for each relationship with a customer (on a global basis), though individual transitions should also be profitable.

Credit facilities will be extended to those companies/persons, which can make best use of them, thus helping to maximize our profits as well as economic growth of the country. To ensure achievement of this objective we will base our lending decision mainly on the borrower’s abilities are granted on a transaction/one-off basis the yield from the facility should be commensurate with the risk.

C. Loan Pricing: Interest on various lending categories will depend on the level of risk and type of security offered. It should e borne in mind that rate of interest is the reflection of risk in the transaction. The higher the risk, the higher the interest rate.

Interest may be reviewed at least once in 6 month and more often when appropriate. Fixed interest rate should e discouraged. Preferably all rates should vary with cost of funds fluctuation based on a spread for profit.

D. Administration/ Monitoring: The administration of the loan process shall ensure compliance with all laws and regulations at both local and global levels including Bank policy as set out in this documents and the Bank’s Credit manual/ Circulars. Proper analysis of credit proposal is complex and requires a high level of numerical as well as analytical ability and common sense.

To ensure effective understanding of the concepts and thus to make the overall credit portfolio of the Bank healthy, proper staffing of the credit departments shall be done through . Placement of qualified officials who have got the right aptitude, formal training in finance, credit risk analysis, Bank credit procedures as well as required experience.
Where repayment and interest servicing performance of a credit deteriorates it shall be identified at an early state and closely monitored in order to avoid loan losses.
Loan/facilities, and where appropriate, related security, shall e monitored and reviewed by a separate unit unconnected with the credit approval process on a regular basis in order to assess the collect ability of the loan and effectiveness of the security. This unit will report to the Managing Director or his designated officer.
F. Exception of Loan Policy: It is recognized that there will be exceptions to the stated policy, which can e justified. However, the Board should approve these by the Executive Committee or and the circumstances must be fully documented in the credit file.

5.7 Types of Credit Activities
Depending on the various nature of financing, all the lending activities have been brought under the following major heads:

1) Loan (General)
Short term, Medium term & long term allowed to individual/firm/ industries for a specific purpose but for a definite period and generally repayable by installments fall under this head. This type of lending are mainly allowed to accommodate financing under the categories
I. Long & Medium Scale industry
II. Small & Cottage Industry, very often term financing for (1) Agriculture &(11) Others are also included here.

2) House Building Loan (General)
Loans allowed to individual/enterprises for construction of house (residential or commercial) fall under this type of advance. The amount is repayable by monthly installment within a specified period. Such advances are known as loan (HBL-GEN).
Introduction: House building loan is one of the common credits polices of Banking sector. There was only one Bank in our country, which is specialized in HBL, Bangladesh House Building Fiancé Corporation. Now-a- days, besides this bank many commercial Bank and NCBsprovide house building loan to the customers. Recently a company named BRC-DELTA housing started their operation. There are no policies about the staffs of this Bank. If any employee switches from any other Bank. If any employee switches from any other Bank and if he or she has any loan there, then that loan will be transferred to the BASIC Bank. The BASIC Bank will pay the loan to that Bank.
Interest rate: Currently the interest rate is 15%. But it may changes from time to time depending on the marker interest rate. From the customers point of view this changes gave an adverse impact on the customers. Some times if they have to bare a higher interest on the principal amount.
This causes a great burden to them. But from the Bank’s point of view this is very good to maintain the markup. Because when the market interest rate raises 1% than they are getting 1% less markup. So for this clause of increasing interest rate they can have the same markup by increasing the interest rate chinning on the clients. So this is very effective for the Bank to maintain markup.
Disbursement Procedure: The disbursement procedure or timing of disbursement depends on the client or the progress of work of the construction.
The disbursement can be made two or three stages or more depending on the above conditions. Mode of repayment: The loan shall be adjusted by monthly installment basis. The repayment will start from 6 months of the date of first disbursement (it may changes according to the terms and conditions of the agreement)
Collateral: This land and the construction on that land is normalcy given as collateral. It may changes.

Charge Documents to be obtained:
A. DP note.
B. Letter of disbursement
C. Letter of installment
D. Letter of guarantee
E. Letter of undertaking
F. Letter of agreement
G. Irrevocable general power of attorney
H. Memorandum of deposit of title deed
I. Any other documents if considered.
3) Horse Building Loans (Staff)
Loans allowed to our Bank employees for purchase/ construction of house shall be known as staff loan (HBL-STAFE).
4) Other Loans to Staff
Loans allowed to employees other than for House Building shall be grouped under head staff loan (Gen).
5) Cash Credit (Hypo)
Advances allowed to individual/firm for trading as well as wholesale purpose or to industries to meet up [the working capital requirements against hypothecation of goods as primary security fall under this type of lending. It is a continuous credit. It is allowed under the categories:
“Commercial Lending”- when the customer is other than an industry and “Working Capital”- when the customer is an industry.
6) Cash Credit (Pledge)
Financial accommodations to individual/firms for trading as well as wholesale or to industries as working capital against pledge of goods as primary security fall under this head of advance. It is also a continuous credit and like the above allowed under categories.
(1) “Commercial Lending”
(2) “Wording Capital”
7. Hire-Purchase
Hire Purchase is a type of installment credit under which the Hire-purchaser agrees to take the goods on hire at a stated rental, which is
inclusive of the repayment of principal as well as interest for adjustment of the loan within a specified period.
8. Lease Financing
Lease Financing is one of the most convenient sources of acquiring capital machinery and equipment whereby a client is given the opportunity to have an exclusive right to use an asset usually for an agreed period of time against payment of rent. It is a term financing repayable buy installment.
Interest Rate: The interest of the bank is between 15%-18% depending on the party or clients. Mainly the interest rate changes subject to the amount of lease finance and clients. Here the interest rate is 2& in both the cases.
The client provides the following documents normally: Details schedule and particulars offered by the parties the Bank. Stating the present market value with copy of tide deed.
Copy of up to date trade license of the party.
Certified coypu of Memorandum of Articles of Association of the company along with certified copy of Incorporation.
Copies of audited financial statements for last three years.
Copy of assessment order of income tax.
Supporting documents of liabilities.
Earning forecast showing detailed breakup of project cost and recurring expenses and other usual financial analysis duly supported by its assumption. Listing of similar items in the company.
Any other information/documents pertaining to the approval
Installments: Lease rentals includes the interest, risk fund, supervision cost etc.
Normally there are 48 installments in a lease financing repayment.
Penalties: Difference between BASIC Bank and Leasing Companies

5.8 Credit Approval

The primary factor determining the quality of the Banks credit portfolio is the ability of each borrower to honors, on a timely basis, all credit commitments made to the bank. The authorizing credit personnel prior to credit approval must accurately determine this. The credit approval process shall be governed by the Bank credit policy framework, which can be summarized under the following headings:

1. Credit Evaluation Principles: To have the optimum returns from the deployed funds in different kinds of lending, more emphasis shall be given on refund of loans and advances out of funds generated by the borrowers from their business activities (cash flow) instead of realization of money y disposing of the securities held against the advance which is very uncertain and time consuming. Accordingly the credit evaluation principles must be adhered to at every level of approval. The lending risk analysis tool containing analysis of both the business risk and security risk provides overall rating of risk in a particular loan under the following lending process:

 Assess risk of failure to repay.
 Decide whether to accept or reject a loan proposal
 Set pride and terms.
 Obtain sanctioning documents and disburse loan.
 Monitor performance and ensure repayment/recovery

The most pertinent and prime part of the process is assessment of risk of failure to repay which deals with the overall lending risk combining the business risk and the security risk in matrix derived out of six segments of the Business risk viz.

 Supplier risk
 Sales risk
 Performance risk
 Resilience risk
 Management competence risk &
 Management integrity risk and tow segments of the security risk viz. (1) Security controllers & (11) Security cover risk.

The overall matrix provides four kinds of lending risk for decision-makers viz.
 Good
 Acceptable
 Marginal and
 Poor, which are detailed in the lending, risk analysis Circular/Credit manual.

Bank shall not approve any lending having an overall risk as “marginal” and “poor” without proper justifications except for renewal of existing facilities under compelling circumstances or for other reason such as salvage, which shall also contain covenants for future improvement of the position. All credit applications rated “” shall require the approval of the Board regardless of purpose, tenor or amount.

1. Credit Risk Evaluation/Assessment: The importance of a detailed and complete credit risk assessment for each facility and customer Relationship cannot be over emphasized. The steps the should be follow in carrying out such an assessment are set out in the Bank credit manual and in Head Office Circulars issued from time to time. All proposals of credit facilities must be supported by a completer analysis of the proposed credit. A comprehensive and accurate appraisal of the risk in every credit exposure of the Bank is mandatory. No proposal can be put up for approval unless there gas been a complete written analysis.

b. Executive Committee
Executive committee of the Board shall be responsible for:
• Approving credit facilities as delegated by the Board of Directors
• Supervising the implementation of the directives of the Board of Directors
• Reviewing of each extension of credit approval by the Head office credit committee/Managing director.
• Keeping the Board of Directors informed covering all the above.

c) Policy Committee
• Establishing Lending policy
• Establishing policies & procedure for revi8ewing and analyzing extensions of credit and loan portfolios.

Loan Department Operation

This part of this policy contains instructions covering the details of various types of loans and advances of the Bank, the documents to be obtained, accounting record to be maintained, process of the Loan Department, which is responsible for processing and servicing all advances as well as maintaining the records connected with the function.

Main functions of Credit Department:

l) Interviewing the prospective borrower.
m) Receiving the credit information assembled and placed in the Customer’s Credit File.
n) Processing and sanctioning of credit facilities to the customer.
o) Disbursement of credit facilities to borrowers in accordance with established procedures.
p) Recording credit facilities in the Register / Card.
q) Preparing “ENTRY TICKETS” (Voucher) pertaining to credit facilities disbursed and passing to General Ledger Accounts.
r) Controlling of securities and their proper custody.
s) Maintenance / Filling of Borrower’s Loan Card / Register.
t) Follow up and recovery of credit as per due date.
u) Computation and checking of interest accrued on loans and advances and preparation of entry ticket thereof.
v) Preparing of “ENTRY TICKETS” (Voucher) for credit repaid and passing the same to the corresponding General Ledger Accounts.

The following types of credit facilities are generally allowed by the Bank to the individuals, partnership firms, companies, corporations and others, either on demand, time or self liquidating basis and are carried on the Bank’s

General Ledger:
f) Loans:
iv. Demand Loans
v. Time loans
vi. Term loans (more than one year)
g) Overdrafts:
iv. Against pledge of goods /stocks
v. Against hypothecation of goods/stocks.
vi. Against any other permissible securities.
h) Other advances:
v. Against Import bills (BLC)
vi. Against Imported Merchandise (LIM)
vii. Against Export Bills Purchased / discounted.
viii. Against Work Order
ix. Against Other Securities.
i) Letters of Credit

Letter of Guarantee
Demand Loans: Demand loan is granted by the bank against foreign bills under collection and against clearing cheque under collection.

Term loans:
If any loan is extended over a period exceeding one year, it is called “Term Loan”. These loans are usually made to large well established business enterprise for Capital financing, such as setting up of industry, balancing or modernization of existing plant / merchandise of industries, purchase of equipment etc. Covering the repayment period beyond one year.

Arranged O/D: In this case the customer is allowed on the basis of prior arrangements to overdraw his Current Account by drawing Cheques for amounts exceeding the balance up to an agreed limit within certain period of time not exceeding one year, against acceptable securities. These facilities are granted after the credit standing; financial ability and status of the customer as well as the purpose have been favorably established. The limit of the OD is based on ADVISED LINE OF CREDIT available on a revolving basis, subject to review prior to expiration of agreed period, if a renewal is anticipated.

O/D against pledge of goods / stocks:
Under this arrangement, the credit facility is granted to the borrower against the security of pledge of goods/produce in the form of raw materials or finished products subject to credit/margin restrictions. The borrower signs a letter of pledge and surrender the physical possession of the goods/produce pledged under Bank’s effective control but retains the ownership with him.
In case of default, the banks can sell the goods on serving proper notice to the borrower and adjust the outstanding out of sale proceeds.
Sometimes collateral securities by way of legal or equitable mortgage of immovable properties are also obtained before disbursement of the loan/D against hypothecation of goods/ stocks / plant & machineries
Under this method, facilities are extended to borrower on his signing a letter of hypothecation, creating a charge against the goods/products, plant & machineries etc. Hypothecated, for the amount of agreed limit of the debt subject to credit / margin restrictions. The control / possession as well as the ownership of the hypothecated goods / products etc. is retained by the borrower but binding himself to surrender possession of the goods to the Bank as and when called upon to do so. The Bank only acquires a right or interest over the goods hypothecated. The Bank, therefore, almost always insist on furnishing collateral securities by way of legal or equitable mortgage of immovable properties and or guarantees where deemed fit.

5.10 Branch Credit Committee
Branch Credit Committee to be headed by the Branch Manager, other members to be selected by the Manager in consultation with Head office.
o The branch Manager will be the first line lending officers and are responsible for exercising their authority with due diligence and discipline.
o They must also know their borrower fully
o Comply with the applicable instruction, manuals, circulars and other rules of the Bank and well as those of Bangladesh Bank Banking companies Act 1991 (as amended from time to time).
o Ensure that Credit proposals submitted to head office, Credit Division are complete and consistent with established polices & procedure.
o Review and analyses the following in connection with credit risk proposals coverage any obligor
A. History of antecedent of the obligor and its management personnel.
B. Financial condition of the obligor evidenced by comparative statement, latest Balance Sheet, income statement, operating results and supplementary facts as well as by personal Net worth statement of the proprietor, partners & Director.
C. Bank & credit information Bureau (CIB) checking and trade standing obtained through investigation.
D. Any other pertinent information.
Secure necessary and adequate Legal & Banking documentation as well as insurance cover, all in our favor to ensure maximum legal protection. They should also ensure that all charge documents, securities, collateral etc. as per sanction letter have been obtained prior to disbursement. Comply with necessary and customary internal & external control & safeguard.
Ensure continuing review of the risks and exposure and compliance with limits with particulars attention being paid to term loans. At the minimum the following should be done:
A. Every month all credit facilities should be reviewed by Branch Manager along with other members of Brash credit Committee.
B. Ensure that all loan covenants are being complied with.
C. Review that regular deposits are being made in the accounts especially for CC & SOD limits and the deposits commensurate with limits and business.
D. Ensure verification of stock reports by the Manager or his authorized officer every month.
E. Visit the business establishment/factories of the borrower at least once in a month to review business position, profitability, future projection etc. and prepare a report of the finding, which is to be cooped to head office.
 Ensure that all credit facilities are covered y appropriate approval and that they are kept within approved limits and ensure compliance with terms and conditions of the approval.

5.11 Loan of Directors
No credit facilities should be allowed to any Director of the Bank as defined by Bangladesh Bank in Banking Companies Act.

5.12 Documentation
It is essential that the proposal define clearly the purpose of the facility, the sources of repayment, the agreed repayment schedule security and the customer relationship considerations implicit in the credit decision.
Where security is to be accepted as collateral for the facility all documentation relating to the security shall be in the approved form.

All approval procedures and required documentation shall be completed and all securities shall be in place, prior to the disbursement of the facilities. General documentations as require for different kinds of advance are enumerated below. There may be requirement of specific banking or legal documents to secure a credit according to sanction terms and conditions, which should also be obtained in addition to the following:

A) Loan
 D.P Note
 Letter of partnership (in case of partnership concerns) or resolution the Board of Director (in case Limited Companies)
 Letter of arrangement
 Letter of disbursement
 Letter of Pledge (in case pledge of goods)
 Letter of hypothecation (in case of hypothecation of goods)
 Trust receipts (in case of LTR facility)
 Letter of lien and ownership/share transfer form (in case advance shares)
 Letter of lien for packing credits (in case of packing credit)
 Letter of lien (in case advances against FDR)
 Letter f lien and transfer authority (in case of advance against PSP, BSP etc)
 Legal documents for mortgage of property (as drafted by legal Advisor)
 Copy of scansion letter mentioning details of terms & conditions duly acknowledge by the borrower.

B) Overdrafts
 P. Note
 Letter of partnership (in case of partnership concerns ) or Resolution of the board of directors (in case of Limited companies)
 Letter of arrangement
 Letter of continuity
 Letter of lien (in case of Advance against FDR)
 Letter of lien and ownership/share transfer form (in case of advance against shares)
 Letter o lien and transfer authority (in case of advance against PSP, BSP etc)
 Legal documents for mortgage of property (as drafted by legal

C. Cash Credit
 D.P
 Letter of partnership (in case of partnership concerns) or Resolution of the Board of Directors (in case of limited companies)
 Letter of arrangement
 Letter of continuity
 Letter of Hypothecation {in case of cash credit (Hypo)}
 Letter of pledge/Agreement of pledge {in case of Cash Credit (pledge)
 Legal documents for mortgage of property (as drafted by legal Adviser)
D) Bill purchased
P. Note
Letter of Partnership (In case of partnership concerns) or Resolution of the Directors (in case of limited companies)
Letter of arrangement
Letter of Hypothecation of bill
Letter of Acceptance, where it calls for acceptance by the drawee.

All required documents, as enumerated above, should be obtained before any loan is disbursed. Disbursement of any credit facility requires approval of then sure, before exercising such authority that all the required documentation has been completed.

5.15 Appraisal

Project Appraisal Procedure
Before sectioning loan BASIC Bank Ltd. asses the viability of a project. It is subjected to scrutiny and appraisal from the technical, marketing , financial, economic, organization and management points of view to ensure that the project. The H. O. provides basically medium and short-term project loan.
An appraisal practices in BASIC Bank Ltd. concentrates on the following five major aspects.
(1) The Technical Feasibility: A project proposal is appraised from the technical viewpoint. The Engineers of BASIC Bank Ltd. first touches the feasibility analysis of project. They determinate how practicable the project would be to produces as per as its physical qualities that make the exact product specifications to facilitate further research by the marketing experts. Their effort is directed towards the selection of mechanical process which best suits the production to the production of the product under the clime condition of Bangladesh. However, the following are the important technical parameters on which the engineers stress to determine. The viability of the project from the technical viewpoint.

1. Location of the project particularly with regard to nearness to sources of raw materials, utilities, transport facilities, manpower requirements and supply and marker for the product.
2. Specification of plant and equipment and experience and record of machinery suppliers.
3. Process feasibility and su8itabilityy under prevailing conditions in the country.
4. Technical know-how availability and training of personnel at all levels.
5. Selection of technical collaborators, scale of production, design and specification of equipment.
6. Plan layout particularly with reference to production flow.

(2) The Market Feasibility: A very exhaustive analysis is made by the Credit Division of H. O. covers the following aspects.
1. Market demand projection that is the total effective demand for the product at the time when the product will come into operation.
2. Export project and prevailing condition of the international market that is what changes may take place in the international market of the product of the product if it is exportable.
3. Local market condition that is what portion of this market will be captured by the existing firms and firms who are under construction and shall be producing at that time.
4. The expected price of the product when it will appear inlet market
5. The total supply of the product.
6. The supply gap of the expected product.
7. Changes in Government policy on prices and distribution control.
8. Marketing and selling arrangements and other promotional arrangements of the product.
(3) Financial Viability: Financial appraisal of a project decides which project will be the most viable and profitable that is which will give
better yield and a satisfactory rate of return. The financial analysis evaluates this ability by adopting ratio techniques. Projections of operational and capita costs etc. are made after allowing due margin for all items of capital of costs as well as recurring inputs. To provide for unforeseen contingencies suitable provision for escalation is also made.

The feasibility analysis from the financial view point relates to not only profitability but also to cash flow because the institution would ensure that the interest and loan repayment will be adequate covered.

(4) Economic Feasibility: While approving financial assistance to the project H. O. of BASIC Bank Ltd. gives priority to those projects which gave the high potential to produce tangible and intangible social benefits.

The important parameters for measurement with regard to economic feasibility:

a) The extent to which the project is expected to contribute to t6he national exchequer
b) The extent to which the profit can bring about development in the area
c) The extend to which more employment will be created
d) The extent to which atmosphere and other pollution’s could be contained is the project.

Head Office of BASIC Bank Ltd. also uses the following ration to see the economic and social justification of a project.

1. Capital output ratio
2. Capital mobilization ratio (Total cost-loan propose/loan proposed)
3. Capital expenditure per worker (Total cost/ No. of employees) or (equity/loan proposed)

Processing for evaluating a loan application
Following Papers/ Documents are to be submitted by the Branch Manager to Head Office (Credit Division):

1. Request for credit limit if customers.
2. Project profile/ Profile of Business.
3. Copy of Trade License duly attested
4. Copy of TIN Certificate.
5. Certified copy of Memorandum and Articles of Association, Certificate of commencement of business , Resolution of Board of Director, partnership deed , (where applicable)
6. Personal Net worth statement of the owner/Director/Partner/Proprietor in Banks Format.
7. Valuation Certificate in Banks Format along with photograph of collateral security with detail particulars on the back duly authenticated by the Branch Manager.
8. 3 Years Balance Sheet and Profit and Loss A/C
9. CIB Enquiry form duly filled in (For proposed of Tk. 10.00 Lac and above).
10. Lending Risk Analysis for credit facilities of Tk. 1.00 crore and above.
11. Inspection/Visit Report of Factory/ Establishment/ Business premised of the customer.
12. Stock Report duly verified (where applicable).
13. Credit Report from other Banks
14. Indent/proforma Invoice/Quotation (where applicable)
15. Price verification report (Where applicable)
16. Statement of A/C for the last 12 months. In case the customer marinating account with other bank, statement of Account for the last 12 month of the concerned bank should be furnished.
17. Incase of renewed/enhancement of credit facility debit Turnover, Credit turnover, highest drawing, lowers drawing, total income earned, detailed position of existing liabilities of the customer i.e. Date of expiry, present outstanding, Remarks, if any.
18. Declaration of the customer of the name of sister/allied concerns and liabilities with other banks it allies, and an undertaking to the effect that they have no liability beyond those declared.
19. Incase of L/C proposal, detailed performed of L/C during the last year i.e. number and date of L/C opened, commodity, L/C value date of creation of PAD, date of retirement, mode of retirement etc.
20. Incase of BTB L/C proposal
21. Detailed list of machinery, production capacity, working capital (BTB L/C) assessment existing exporter L/C in hand mentions date of shipment , detailed position of existing export L/C in hand mentions date of shipment of outstanding FDBPIIDBP, if any
22. Financial Analysis to be prepared by the Branch Manager based on financial performance of the company & should shows trend sin sales/profitability, liquidity, liquidity etc. It should also contain an assessment of the competence and quality of the business management, the general economic & completive of the borrowers industry and any other pertinent factors that are relevant for our credit decision.
23. Justification/consideration for the facility.


The main advantage of BASIC Bank’s credit policy is its conservative approach. The entire policy is designed in a way that, it could always avoid default risk. In the credit policy all kinds of documentation process, appraisal techniques are designed so that the bank officials can take no excess risk.

In the credit policy top management are assigned adequate power to monitor the credit operation at the branch level.
In most of the government bank we have seen that, the head office is not contributing more for the supervision of the loans and advances. But in BASIC a handful number of top officers have been engaged to monitor day to day operation, which are reducing the number of errors.

In the credit policy it has been clearly specified that, 50% of the total fund should be invested in the in small and cottage industries for short time. And we all know short-term loans are more secured than the long term. And also small investors are much more honest than the large investors. So for this policy BASIC Bank is getting competitive advantage.

All the investors know that, it is very difficult to get loan from BASIC Bank. They have to satisfy concern body and should be very optimistic about the future of their project. If any kind of loopholes exist in their procedure it will be very tough for them to get any loan from the bank. This policy gives the bank small but strong borrower portfolio that is important to keep the classification rates low.

Not only that, BASIC Bank is the one of those banks, which never takes any kind of, uncovered risk in dealing with foreign trade. They provide the foreign trade facilities only to their prime clients.


The technique that has been used in credit analysis is not adequate. Now days it is not possible to justify of a client by analyzing only their projects production capacity. It is important to analyze their financial statement and market share make sure that the project will last for long. BASIC’s credit policy does not clearly specify these techniques.
In the credit policy no emphasis has been given for mobilizing deposit from private sources. But private sources are the least costly sources and using it is possible to earn more profit from investment.


Bangladesh is a country where it is very difficult to establish hi-tech industries because of high capital asset cost. So the government of Bangladesh and other international bodies convincing to establish small and cottage industries first which will make the ground for huge investment. As a result the numbers of small industries are increasing day by day. And BASIC’s has huge chance to progress if it can hunt this sector.Not only that, international organizations and donor countries are continuously convincing the government of Bangladesh to attenuate the high classified loan rate. Now days they are including the clause of reducing the classified rate before sanctioning donation or loan to the country. As BASIC bank is successfully keeping the classification rate low it is possible that, it will get international assistance from ADB and from other organizations. And obviously these funds will have lower interest rate by which the bank can earn handful profit.


From 1990 the core concept of banking in Bangladesh is changing. Now banks are going to the customer with services and try to convince them by it. Most of the banks have increased its service range significantly to attract its client and to satisfy them properly. Along with that, now the banks are trying to accumulate more funds from the middle class group. Alike insurance company most of the banks also have employ marketing agents to convince the mass. All of said situation is happening because of the increase of number banks in the country and competition among them.

BASIC bank is not very keen in marketing its product. And in credit policy it also not specified significantly. Not only that, it does not have any marketing plan to grab the market after 5 or 10 year. So if the banks do not change this attitude its profit will be reduced for the abnormal competition in the market. And also if the government sells its entire share to the private sector the bank will face huge pressure from its competitor.
Matching of Strength and Opportunities with Weaknesses and Threats.

In the credit policy we have found everything all right except the techniques used for screening the client. BASIC bank has some very efficient and highly educated professionals who can easily solve the problem if they concentrate on the issue. So the weakness can be eliminated easily through its strength.

The credit policy of BASIC has been perfectly designed depending on the government funds and assistance. But as it is sure that, government will sell its share in near future BASIC has to revise its credit policy by considering alternative source of fund. International funds can be alternatives for government source if BASIC can continuously reduce its classification rate.

Alike other bank BASIC can enforce its marketing operation to grab the small savings of the middle class. And a small change is enough to do so as the strength of the present credit policy is capable to take any pressure.
So from the SWOT analysis of the credit policy of the bank we have found that, the credit policy of BASIC Bank is sound with some exception. And by small revise of the policy is can be the best policy that can lead a bank to the peak of success

5.20 Practices of Credit Policy in BASIC Bank

Now we will try to find out the actual practices against the policy specified above. We will verify whether BASIC Bank, its branches are following the credit policy of the bank.
1. Aggregate Loans and advances are 79% of the total loans and advances:
As we have seen in the credit policy that, it strictly specifies that, at best 65 of the total deposit should only be provide for the loans and advances. If we consider the call deposit and fixed deposit then the figures comes to 79% at June 2001. So in that case BASIC is taking some sort of risk. But as the amount of non-performing asset is low this rate is acceptable. And when we have examined this rate for other private commercial and specialized banks the amount approximately was 80 to 95 percent of the total deposit.
2. Approximately 77% of the loans and advances has been given to small and cottage industries:
In the credit policy it has been specified that, approximately 50% of the loans and advances will be given to small-scale industries. By examining the figures we have found that, for the month ended June 2001, BASIC employed 77% of its loanable funds to small-scale industries.

So we have seen that, comparatively that all other banks are investing less amount to small-scale industries. By this they are maintaining steady short-term profit but endangering long run profitability.

Chapter Six: Comparative Analysis with Other Bank

Comparative Analyses with Other Bank

The organizational structure of BASIC Bank is totally different from other banks operating in Bangladesh. Not only is that, in terms of services provided by the banks to some extent different from other bank. As we have state earlier that, this bank is the only government bank which is established for the betterment of the small-scale business enterprises. So no direct comparison can be made in credit policy and practices. But we can compare them by analyzing the efficiency in credit management. In that, we will segregate the banks operating in Bangladesh into four types: (i) Nationalized Commercial banks (2) Specialized Banks (3) Local private Bank (4) Foreign Banks. And then we will analyze and compare BASIC Bank with the credit management efficiency of those banks.

6.1 Nationalized Commercial Banks

In Bangladesh the credit management of Nationalized Commercial Banks are most debated issue. Almost 85% of the total classified loan belong to the Nationalized commercial banks. Before 1991 no steps has been taken to reduce this rate. Dishonesty of the Bank manager, Pressure of political leaders, dishonesty of directors, improper supervision and inefficient management techniques are the main reason behind high classification rate of Nationalized Commercial Banks.

BASIC Bank Ltd is also Nationalized Bank but due to its effective management and time tested credit supervision and due to its modern organizational structure it becomes able to reduce its classification rate well below to those Nationalized Commercial Banks. Being a specialized bank it does not have huge services to offer. It does not have huge branches or set business or receive huge loan facility from Bangladesh Bank like those banks but yet it has set a milestone in banking. A comparative analysis are given to Appendix 2 to indicate how efficiently BASIC Bank are operating relative to other Nationalized Commercial Banks. When we have talked with the Directors of Nationalized Commercial banks they have informed us that, one major problem of those banks is the CBA of the respective government banks.

They have stated that because of this organization sometimes it becomes impossible to initiate any strong policy to wipe out inefficiency of the nationalized banks. They have also stated that, the salary structure of the Nationalized Commercial Banks is another problem for what the operational manager become less inspired for collecting the classified loans.

In BASIC Bank there is no CBA or any kind of employee organization so it becomes possible to take any action against inefficiency. And the salary structure of BASIC is well above of any nationalized banks so employees get inspired to work for the betterment of the bank.

6.2 Specialized Commercial Bank
In Bangladesh there are four specialized commercial banks (except BASIC) named: Bangladesh Krishi Bank, Bangladesh Krishi Unnayan Bank, and Bangladsh Shilpa Rin Sangstha. These banks are providing subsidies and other improvement facilities for poverty alleviation, industrialization and agricultural development. The rate of classification of Bangladesh Krishi Bank is 35%, Bangladesh Shilpa Bank 29% and Bangladesh Shilpa Rin Sangstha 21%. It shows that, from classification of loans point of view these banks are less efficient than BASIC.

6.3 Local private commercial banks
There are 27 scheduled local private commercial banks operating in Bangladesh. Among them 11 banks starts its operation during 1995 to 2002. In sense they are modern in their nature and activity. These banks gain knowledge and lessons from those banks incepted before 1995. If we focus on the credit management techniques of these banks we can find that, literally they are great.These banks introduced some brilliant package, which are attractive to the borrower and also to the depositor. But from our point of view it is difficult to comment or compare these banks with BASIC Bank. Because the effectiveness of the credit policy can only be judged after 6 or 7 years. But so far they are doing well than the BASIC Bank. Among other banks incepted before 1995 some banks like EBL, Dhaka, Prime and National bank are doing well. If we compare them from the classification of loans and advances point of view then we can see that, BASIC is in good position. But if we judge the level of service provided, management skills, volume of loans, technical knowledge and number of valuable client handled then we can find that, these banks are doing really well. Especially these banks have introduced modern techniques, which is essential for loan appraisal. In APPENDIX 2 we have showed the average loan classification of private local commercial banks along with provision required in against of them.

6.4 Foreign Commercial Banks
There are 9 foreign commercial banks operating in Bangladesh. Among them two banks named Standard Chartered Grindlays Bank, and Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation are providing excellent services to its client. The have introduced modern credit management techniques to select the best client. They have global credit appraisal system that ensures low classification rate.
In every aspect their credit policy and practices are superior to that of BASIC Bank. This is to some extent also true for other foreign commercial banks. In APPENDIX 2 we have shown how these banks are doing well than BASIC. Foreign commercial banks monitoring and supervision technique is also superior to BASIC Bank. The reason of this efficiency is that, the performance evaluation of the manager of the foreign commercial banks depends largely on this. And because of selective sector selection it becomes possible. Not only that, because of modern technology and excellent recruitment procedure it becomes possible for them to have competitive efficiency.

Chapter Seven: Loan Recovery & Credit Default

7.1 Result of Effective Credit Management

So far we have discussed the credit management process, techniques, effectiveness and comparative analysis of BASIC Bank’s credit policy. We have showed that, the bank is doing really well, specially on the part of low classification rate. Now we will show how sound credit management of BASIC bank contributing to the development and growth of BASIC Bank.

1. BASIC Bank is the soundest most banks as per CAMEL rating:
As per CAMEL rating of 2001 by Bangladesh Bank BASIC Bank is the second soundest bank in Bangladesh. In every aspect it acquires the highest (5) rating except management efficiency. For consecutively two (1997 and 1998) it was the soundest bank of Bangladesh as per CAMEL rating of Bangladesh Bank.

2. The classification rate of BASIC Bank decreasing year by year:
In Figure –2 we have shown that, the classification of BASIC Bank decreasing year by year. And it proves that, the credit management of BASIC Banks improving day by day.

3. Amount of outstanding loans and advances increasing year by year:
In Figure–2 we have seen that, the outstanding loans and advances are increasing year by year. This also shows that, credit management policy of BASIC attracting the business concerns and individuals..

4. Satisfactory improvement in call and term deposit:
we see that, call and term deposit have increased from 1999 to 2001. The rate of growth is 16%. Comparative to other Nationalized banks this rate is appreciable.

5. The bank has improved in loan disbursement in 2001:
Up to June 2001 the bank has disbursed 3918 million taka. Comparative to 1999 this amount is 11.42% higher.

6. Admirable improvement in micro-credit scheme:
Not only that, up to June 2001, BASIC Bank’s total foreign exchange business amount reached at Tk.13740 million. We also to see how the bank is performing in foreign exchange business.

7. Profit of the Bank increasing year by year:
Profit of the banks has increased year by year. It shows sound and steady growth of development of the bank. Where most of the government banks are incurring huge loss it is appreciable that, BASIC Bank is doing really good. It should be also mentioned here that, this profit comes after deducting the provision for classified loans.
So far we have discussed the credit management process, techniques, effectiveness and comparative analysis of BASIC Bank’s credit policy. We have showed that, the bank is doing really well, specially on the part of low classification rate. Now we will show how sound credit management of BASIC bank contributing to the development and growth of BASIC Bank.

8. BASIC Bank is the soundest most banks as per CAMEL rating:
As per CAMEL rating of 2001 by Bangladesh Bank BASIC Bank is the second soundest bank in Bangladesh. In every aspect it acquires the highest (5) rating except management efficiency. For consecutively two (1997 and 1998) it was the soundest bank of Bangladesh as per CAMEL rating of Bangladesh Bank.

7.3 Causes of Problem Loans in BASIC

Both borrowers and lender (BASIC) differ in their opinions about causes of problem loans in BASIC. According to the BASIC’s point of view, the main reason for loan default is the borrowers’ unwillingness to repay loans. The manageme4nt of BASIC alleges that the borrows frequently manipulate their documents to show negative demand or higher accounts receivable or sometimes negative profitability in order to avoid repaying loans. However, management admits that in some cases the industry in which the borrowers operate has really become sick.
On the other hand borrowers categorically refute the allegation that they are unwilling to repay-to-repay loans. They blame a number of reasons for their inability to repay loans. One of the reasons, they point out, is lengthy loan sanctioning procedure of BASIC that delays their plan of operation. They instability, frequent powe4r crises and unloading of imported draw materials that results in delay in production.
However, the study of files and documents of top defaulters of BASIC reveals the following causes of problem loans.

7.3.1 Poor Loan Interview
A poor interview most occurs when the loan officer is dealing with a friend or a relative or an influential person of the society. For this he may biased to help; the loan seeker to get the loan.

7.3.2 Inadequate Financial Analysis
Many loans become problems when a loan officer considers the financial analysis to be unimportant but complete analysis of income statements, balance sheets, rations, cash flow etc. are necessary fords judging the ability of the client to overcome the adversity. In Bangladesh, it is easier to manipulate financial documents and also to prepare false documents. In that case proper financial analysis is impossible

7.3. 3 Improper Loan Structuring
Another cause of problem loans is the failure of the loan officer to structure the loan properly. Problems often arise when the officer fails to understand the client’s business and the industry and environment in which it operates. Without this knowledge, it is difficult to anticipate future financing needs and to choose the appropriate loan type, amount and repayment terms. Sometimes loan officers loan officers to evaluate the entrepreneurs’ inability to market and promote their product due to their inexperience in the industry or business in which they operate.

7.3.4 Improper Loan Support
Another leading cause of loan loss is improper collateralization. Accepting collateral that has not been properly evaluated on its ownership, value, or marketability can leave the Bank unprotected in the event of default. A reliance on so-called windshield appraisals, in which collateral is cursorily inspected from afar, is a common pitfall. Another is the overvaluing of collateral.

7.3. 5 Inadequate Monitoring
Many problem loans can be regularized if the loan officer closely follows the loans. Financial statement reviews, occasional site visits and collateral inspections and other loans monitoring tasks must be performed to ensure that the company’s financial position remains good and the terms of the loan agreement are being met. Inadequate follow-up allows small problems to become big ones.

7.4 Impact of Problem Loan in BASIC
Since banks have to set aside a portion of money to make provisions for possible loan losses, a huge portion of its money becomes idle. Again, unearned interest income from the problem loans is shown in the interest suspense accounts. It reduces the profit or the bank that could be earned by investing the money in a profitable sector. Table 13 shows the amounts of provisioning and interest suspense account amounts of provisioning and interest suspense account amounts of provisioning.

7.5 Common Characteristics of Default Borrower Program

Study of files and documents of some top default borrower of BASIC reveals the following common characteristics of default borrowers:
 Tendency of nonpayment. It is the most common characteristics of default borrowers of BASIC. Almost 70 percent of default borrowers of BASIC tend to avoid repaying loan.
 Frequently manipulation in financial statements. The main objective of this manipulation is deceit the lender before and the sanction of loans. Before sanction borrowers submit inflated figures of projected cash flow to convince the lender that the business is profitable. But after getting the loan they try to show the gloomy picture market ad economy.
 Bad securities offered to Bank and their over valuation.
 Inexperience in the business and tend to exercise external influence to get the credit approval. Some of the default borrowers of BASIC got credit against such projects in which they had no previous experience.
 Usually evade Bank’s cal to contact and communicate. BASIC is always first to communicate with default borrowers by letters and telephone calls. But borrowers even do not bother to respond to those or respond later. Sometimes BASIC has to urge them respond to those or respond later. Sometimes BASIC has to urge them for rescheduling their loan.

7.6 BASIC Activities in Loan Recovery Program

It is one of the prime obligations of the banks and financial/credit institutions to ensure that the funds advanced as loans to the borrowers are spent for the purpose for which these are sanctioned. To make it sure, monitoring, follow-up and ends-use of the loan is a must. After a loan is disbursed, a branch should keep regular follow-up for adjustment/performance by the client (borrower) as per the sanction terms. Branch also has to prepare and submit monthly/periodical statements of all the outstanding credit facilities (as per prescribed formats) such as MSOCF, BLC, LIM/TR statements form the branches, Credit Division and industrial Credit Division of Head Office reviews the position of each outstanding account as per the stamens and suggestion correctives measures and obtaining compliance report from ranches. This is a regular process of monitoring by Head Office, which has been set up especially for this purpose of monitoring/follow-up for recovery/regularization of the non-performing and overdue/classified and stuck-up loans and advances of the none performing and overdue/classified and stuck-up loans and advances of the respective branches.

Chapter Eight: Framework for Credit Evolution & Analysis

8.1 Credit Planning
Credit Planning- meaning and objective: Credit planning means estimating first the total loan able resources that are likely to be available within the given period and then allocation the dame amount various alternative uses in conformity with national plan and priorities. Central bank has to take direct and actins role, firstly in creating or helping to create the machinery needed to finance development activities all over the country, and secondly in ensuring that the finance available flows in the directions intended.

Credit planning at micro level: In ultimate analysis, credit budget at micro level is an aggregation of the credit budgets of the indivikkusal banks put together. As
matter of fact, the macro level planner should indicate the thinking to the banks about the magnitude of the macro plan. At the time of sending guidelines to the banks and asking them to prepare their credit budget, the central bank should issue guidelines to banks indicating their assessment of different industries.
This will obviously assist individual banks in preparing their credit plans but unfortunately this is not being done in our country.

a) At branch level:
1. Adherence to the policy guidelines of the head office and the supplementary policy guidelines of the regional office.
2. Analysis of the command area.
3. Determination of the requirements of the incremental loan able funds.
4. Allocation of the said funds to different sectors and client groups during the budged period.
b) At regional level:
1. Analysis and settlement of the branch credit plan in a branch
managers’ meeting and in a democratic way.
2. Transmission of the regional credit plan to the head office.
c) At head office level:
1. Adherence to the policy guidelines of the central bank regarding
deployment of credit.
2. Correction of regional as well as sect oral imbalances if any.
3. Settlement of the credit plan of the concerned back for the budget year.

8.2 Lending Policy

Objectives of lending policy: Banking, in general, is a business activity requiring professional skill while lending activity, in particular, requires more professionalism and care. Successful banking business large depends on effective lending and for a commercial bank, the objectives of having a lending policy usually includes among others, the following:
a. Resource planning to match lending outlay.
b. Strategy to win over the nearest competitors.
c. Augment god-lending base with moderate risk involvement.
d. Increased profitability
e. Ensure balanced loan portfolio.
f. Quick disposal of loan portfolio
g. Development of efficient and capable loan personnel.
h. Building up market reputation.
i. And goodwill by satisfactory services to loan customers.
Factors to be considered whole farming a lending policy: As stated earlier, lending is a very important activity of bank, which requires high quality technical skill and professionalism. Successful lending operations to a great extent depend on the formulation and implementation of an effective lending policy. The formulation of a lending policy for an individual commercial bank requires sincere and honest introspective analysis of various essential factors both internal and external. Some factors have direct and immediate bearing on lending operations whole there are some other factors with remote and indirect influence on the lending operations of the banks. Any lending policy to be fruitful and effective must consider these factors which are shown in the chart provided:

Steps required in framing a lending policy: As state earlier it is a technical action of the bankers to develop a lending. Experiences as a banker and realistic forecaster maker the banker capable in developing a useful lending policy.
However, bankers are required to cover some broad steps, such as the
1. Demarcate market area, market share and define profit goals.
2. Determine the typed of loans that will best serve the bank in realizing ser market area, market share and profit goals.
3. Arrange due legal sanctions from the appropriate authorities, i.e. central bank or others.
4. Arrange proper and effective communication of the lending policy decision to loan officers and others likely to be interested.
5. Arrange regular periodic review, updating and improvement of the policy to suit the demand of time and situations.
Contents of a bank lending policy: An effective lending policy should contain broad guidelines as to various types of issues likely to be faced in the process of bank lending. The contents of lending policy may be different based on the development state of the country, transaction behavior of the customers, size and location of the like. However, usually, the contents of an averaged sized banks landing policy should include among others the following:

1. Lending budget
 Total amount for a particular period
 Maximum amount for a single case
 Average amount of lending to be made per case
2. Composition
 Types of loan
 By areas
 By economic sectors and sub-sectors and industry mix
 Investment loan
 Production loan
3. Periodicity
 Call loans
 Short term working capital loan
 Intermediate term mixed loan
 Long term investment loan
4. Documentation standards
 Application
 Evidence of security
 Loan agreement
 Credit reports
5. Acceptable securities
 Criteria of acceptable security
 Listing of acceptable security
 Allowing margin to be made
 Qualifications of becoming guarantors
6. Evaluating creditworthiness
 Sources of credit information
 Acceptable records, data and other useful information
 Personal interview
 Credit investment
 Aspects to be covered-personal, financial, market, management etc
7. Lending authority
 Sanctioning limits of various types of loans
 Branch manager
 Regional manager
 Deputy General Manager
 General Manager
 Managing director
 Board of directors
8. Compensating balance
 Right offsetting deposit balance for an outstanding loan
 Method o9f computation of compensation balance
9. Risk coverage
 Types of risk involved
 Insurable risk
10. Supervision and control
 Who supervises? Release process
 Loan installments, release process
 Report and action
11. Collection procedure
 Repayment schedule
 Reminders and circular letters
 Personal visits
 Collection through cheques
12. Loan account and records
 Recording procedure to be followed
 Loan profiles to be maintained
 Statements to be provided
13. Competition
 Possible completion
 Strengths and weaknesses
 Methods of winning completion
 Avoiding unhealthy competition
14. Loan grading system
 A=top grade system
 B= good loans
 C= marginal loans
 D= Doubtful loans
 E= likely to be bad loans
15. Procedures of handling problem loans
 Criteria of identifying problem loans
 Methods to be used for identification
 Steps to be taken, id recoverable
 Setting loan loss reserves
16. Development of efficient loan personal
 Loan man ratio to be ideal
 Training on various aspects of loan processing
 Credit evaluation
17. Policy review
 Methods of policy review
 Periodicity of policy review
 Personnel responsible for policy review

8.3 Lending Risk Analysis
Any lending will involve risk, the primary concern of a banker should, therefore, to assess the relative risk as well as profitability of loans and advance. Proper lending analysis help minimizes loan losses by identifying risk in either prospective or existing loan relationship. In addition, credit analysis helps identifying areas of strengths or profit potentiality.Lendidgn analysis can therefore be used not only to support loan approval decision by assessing risk rating of the borrower but also to determine lending price based on risk rating of the borrower.
LRA is one of the new management and operational tools for improving the operational efficiency to the banking in our country imitated by financial sector.

The same FSRP international consultant further say, in Bangladesh, loan analysis in the NCBs is inadequate. The loan analysis in the NCBs typically covers only 25% of the potential risks that are analyzed by the banks in the developed world (1993). Analysis skills are virtually non-existent in the NCBs. 90% of lending officers do not know how to analyze a sets of accounts. So, the ultimate results of the lending process are:

 The country’s scarcer financial resources are not applies effectively
 Loss making enterprises receive funding and stay in the business, allowing them to loss even more
 Profitable enterprises are constrained by lack of funding
 The taxpayers are obliged to subsidies heavily the banking system
 Bangladesh remains one of the poorest countries in the world.

In this circumstance, FSRP team has designed a new system to assess lending risk called LRA Manual. Bangladesh Bank has already made it mandatory for commercial banks to exercise it for granting loans above taka one crore. But in nearfkuture, Bangladesh Bank may suggest it for all kind of loans.
According to FSRP’s own estimates as on July 1995 around 1500 new large loans of NCBs have been sanctioned by applying LRA technique. This improved methodology for analyzing lending risk is undoubtedly a unique technique for the lending institutions the country in the present bay context. But while implementing this new LRA technique the lending officers of the implementing banks have been experiencing lots of problems, which need to be solved.
Lending risk analysis (LRA) – overview: before deciding whether to accept or reject a loan proposal a banker is faced with the following questions:

What id the risk if the bank does not fully recover the loan? Or what is the likelihood that the borrow will repay the loan?

The LRA forms describe bow to assess the risk that the bank does not fully recover the loan. It is a systematic and structured way of assessing lending risk. Lending risk broadly subdivided into (1) business risk i.e. the risk that the business fails to generate sufficient cash to repay the loan and (2) security risk, i.e. the risk that the realized value of the security does not cover the loan exposure.
Business risk further classifies industry risk and command risk where industry risk involves supplies risk, sales risk and company risk, which again relates to company position risk and management risk. The company position risk is subdivided into performance risk and resileence4 risk whereas management risk is further classified into management competence risk and manage4mtnat integrity risk. On the other Bank, security risk is divided into two groups’ security control risk and security cover risk. In lending risk analysis, much of the emphasis has been placed on business risk than security risk.

Process of completing LRA from: Before completing LRA form, lending officer must collect data specific from published sources and company specific data that is bnot6 usually published personally visiting the company. For assessing management ability and integrity the lending officer should interview the management. He must also make overall assessment on the security offered by the applicant. Finally, he should analyze those data and prepare financial spreadsheets i.e. balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement and ratio analysis. These financial statement spreadsheets provide quick method of business trends and deficiency and help assess the borrowers? Ability to repay the loan with interest. These spreadsheets also realistically show business trends and allow comparisons to be made within the industry. At the time of analyzing data, the lending officer may prepare supplementary questions for company management if require.

8.4 Loan Pricing Methodology
Banks are the major financial institutions, which intermediate between actual lenders and actual borrows. For this intermediation, Banks are to pay actual lenders and charge actual borrowers. The loan pricing process can be viewed as following:

 The price of the loans is the interest rate the borrowers must pay to the bank in addition to the amount borrowed (participle)
 The interest rate of the loan is determined by the true cost of the loan to the bank (base rate) plus profit/risk premium for the banks services and acceptance of risk.
 The components of the true cost of the loan are
 Interest expense
 Administrative cost
 Cost of capital
 Interest expense= deposit interest +central bank borrowing
 Administrative cost= depots as well as loan administrative cost
 Cost cost= deposit as well as loan administrative cost
 Cost of capital= return on capital or the rate of return investors would expect to receive and invest in a bank
 Risk is the measurable possibility of losing or not gaining value
 The prime risk which making a loan repayment risk which is the measurable possibility that a borrower will not repay their obligation as agreed
 A god lending decision minimizes repayment risk
 The price a borrower must pay to the bank for assessing and accepting this risk is called risk premium
 Since pars performance of a sector, industry or the bank for assessing and accepting this risk is called risk premium
 Since past performance of a sector, industry or company is a string indicator of future performance, risk premiums are generally based on the historical, quantifiable amount of losses in that category
 Interest rate charge=base rate=risk premium
 Loan priding is nor an exact science. There are several methods of calculating loan process.

Chapter Nine: Finding, Recommendations and Conclusions


 Deposit is the sources of funds for banks, in other words it is the supply side of the Lon able funds in credit management system. There is a major problem in our banking scoter regarding attracting more deposits. Deposit mobilization gas often been confined to urban areas, primarily because of the neoclassical assumption that rural people have low incomes and cannot save. Recent literature amply documents that rural areas have savings that can be mobilized through improvement of rural banking system (Adams; Agabin; Gongalez-Vega). In our country rate of deposit in rural areas was 14.11%, 23.41%, 27.26% and 22.31% in 1980, 85, 95, 99 respectively. So toincreaswthe4 loan able funds deposit mobilization in rural areas should be taken care of.
 Recovery profile of small and medium debtors is better than large ones in our country. The fastest growing borrower segment in the world is the “SMS” or “Small and Medium Enterprise” segment. However, very few of our products are geared towards supporting g this segment of the market. Traditionally, we have considered this segment as high-risk.
 Advance policy of our banking sector shows that agricultural sector is the neglected area due to the low loan recovery rate and lending to agricultural sector is risky because of the variation in the products due to natural calamities. But agriculture’s contribution in our GDP is still significant (29.95% of total GDP).
 Private sector bank’s lending was directed to satisfy sponsor directors interests. Proper professional exercised were not in place in respect of disbursement, monitoring and supervision of credit.
 Frequent change in Exchange Rate affects banks in import business.
 Deposit per employee and deposit per branch figures are satisfactory only for foreign banks and the performance of the rest of banking sectors not reasonable. The problem is acute because of less depots mobilization and higher employee and branches in comparison with foreign banks.


Banks should establish a review process to examine the changing circumstances of borrowers to determine the position of loans. Attention devoted to these loans is more likely to result in proper action devoted to these loans is more likely to result in proper action to safeguarded the Banks position and to assist the borrower to take appropriate steps in their business to bring back loan performing.
 Major problems in a business develop when a changing in management (Business concern) occurs. The loan officer should observe that whether there is loss of the top executive, demand, or any other most important new one has entered and often the change may be worse.
 The Bank should also be aware of significant changes in the personal habits of current management.
 Changes in industry trends may directly affect business so that it can no longer completely profitable. Therefore, the Bank should keep information about the environment of each industry in which its customers operate.
 Deterioration in the overall economy can turn a good loan a week one. During unusual inflation or depression, many companies expiries difficulties. The loan should be aware of it.
 From the beginning of the relationship, the loan officer should know who the company’s major trade suppliers are.
If he can discover that a major supplier is reducing credits to the customers, this could be a sign that the borrowing company is facing serious financial difficulties. Bank should start credit inquiries from trade suppliers.
 Real value of business can come from making regular visits to the customers place of business rather than holding all meetings in the Bank.
 For improving the recovery position and reducing huge over due loans the first action needed to attract political support and urge upon the govt. and political parties to take necessary steps for repayment of defaulted loans within a limit.
 Against big willful defaulters legal Acton should be taken promptly. This step should be taken as soon as one installment is defaulted without waiting for default of total loan.
 New credit culture needs to be developed in place of default culture. Efforts to be taken as soon as possible too safeguard the interest of banking sector.


The banking sector of Bangladesh is passing thorough a tremendous reform under the economic deregulation and opening up the economy. Currently this sector is becoming extremely competitive with the arrival of multinational banks as well as emerging and technological infrastructure, effective credit management, higher performance level and utmost customer satisfaction.