Origin of the Report
One of the unavoidable aspects of modern business studies is exposure to the practical experiences. As a part of the BBA program requirement, I am assigned by my honorable project supervisor to prepare a project paper. It endowed me with the opportunities to experience the real life exposure to the activities of the business firms.
This report has been prepared as the course requirement of the BBA program. I hope that this report will provide a clear insight on the Human Resource activities and practices of any organization in terms of human resource planning and recruitment process.
Objective of the Study
The main objective of the report is concentrated on the HR Practices in a Bangladeshi organization. The report will also explore the importance and requirement of HR department of assigned organization.
Overall, this study is to be conducted to fulfill the following objectives:
- To study the HR planning process of the company – Bangladesh Institute of ICT in Development (BIID)
- To understand the HR planning doing a library research
- To understand HR plan with other HR function
- To gain practical experience and match it with the theories
I have displayed bullet points, graphs and charts to analyze our findings. I have made the report garnering information mostly from respective company’s HR policies and practices. We analyzed its HR planning process, relationship of HR planning with other HR functions to retrieve required data to display the requirement of the objective of the report.
In order to prepare the report I mainly worked with primary data. At first, I went to the office of BIID and asked the HR and Accounts & Finance Manager (Chandan Kumar Das) about their HR policies and practices in the organization. Then I gave weight on those factors based on the documents and answers provided by her. Then I offered the employees to fill up a questionnaire (The questionnaire is provided here in the appendix part). Based on their response to my queries I have prepared the report.
This paper was also prepared based on information collected from secondary sources.
As for secondary data, the following sources were used:
1. Official websites
2. Different books, newspapers, journal and articles
To make a report various aspects and experiences are required. However, we have faced some constraints to establish a complete and perfect report. These barriers or limitations, which hindered our work, are as follows:
- Difficulty in accessing data of its internal operations
- Some information was withheld to retain the confidentiality of the organization
- It was not possible to consider all the macroeconomic factors sufficiently
- Lack of time
In this following analysis, we will provide information about BIID’s history and related features of the organization, the HR management and practices of the organization. Then we will focus on the HR planning based on theory. Finally, we will analyze our findings and recommend some possible activities.
History of the BIID
Bangladesh Institute of ICT in Development (BIID) is an enterprise engaged in developing ICT enabled products and services to support private, non-government and government initiatives targeted at rural communities in particular and citizens in general in providing them with access to ICTs and ICT enabled information and services.
BIID sees vast range of opportunities in the ICT4D sector in Bangladesh; using the existing capacity, expertise and knowledge of BIID, I wish to be engaged in this sector providing a wide range of services and solutions for all sector of the society.
Currently BIID is working in numerous sectors using ICTs to reach citizens more efficiently and to bring relevant services to closer to the communities in which citizens reside. With the aid of ICTs, BIID is working in agriculture through e-Krishok (www.ekrishok.com), MSME through www.sme.com.bd, promoting rights based activities through e-Complain (www.complain.com.bd), providing information and solutions to travelers through Travel Line (www.travelline.com.bd), supporting telecentres in Dhaka districts through DRC and creating a new business model for telecentres with Batighar.
To support development and promotion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) based services in Bangladesh. The distinction of BIID lies in clear identification of ICT market development opportunities through continuous knowledge management, innovation and development.
By 2011, BIID wishes to become the undisputed leader in ICT for Development sector providing services to both public and private organizations/entities/initiatives.
BIID dreams to achieve a distinction like the luminosity in the sky. their prime objective is to deliver a quality service and to complete the existing projects that demonstrate a true reflection of their vision – leading through innovation.
To realize its vision, BIID adopts following key strategies:
- Applying existing knowledge (data and expertise in aid to business and marketing strategy planning).
- Pilot/concept testing to roll-out/scale-up new/existing services.
- Understanding citizens (target audience) need and national ICT market development priorities to decide among alternate investment opportunities.
- Collaborating with GOB; national and global private sector leaders in the ICT sector; and academia to leverage impact of planned initiatives, resource mobilization and utilization.
Organization Structure and Size
The structure and size of BIID is not very large. It is shown in chapter 4 in the organogram of the organization.
Products & Services
BIID is a service provider organization that normally provides services of ICT to different private, government, and non-government organization. The main objective of BIID is to complete the projects that it has already taken. The services are
Although it came into the market in 2008, the leadership behind BIID draws on many years of experience and exposures to ICT for Development (ICT4D) both home and abroad. BIID offers a range of consulting services that are aimed at contributing to improve livelihood, business development of enterprises and initiatives engaged in ICT enabled knowledge-based services.
Research and Development
Research and Development is at the core of BIIDs approach to ICT for development. R&D services offered by BIID are aimed at development of business models, services and community outreach strategies for Telecentres and other ICT4D initiatives in rural Bangladesh.
Content Creation and Delivery
Useful and user-friendly content is vital in delivering communication services targeted to rural entrepreneurs and communities. Supported by its competence in R&D, BIID specializes in facilitating development of general and location-specific content through its linkages with academic community, research organizations, private and public providers of information.
Knowledge and Skills Development
Based on its understanding of specific training needs of human resources engaged in operation of ICT4D projects and in the provision of information based service delivery mechanism, BIID offers skill development support for prospective organizations and service providers.
The leadership behind BIID has developed a knowledge base on ICT4D through active participation and sharing with local and international forums. BIID plans to continuously build on it by working in the field so that it can become a major contributor of knowledge to practitioners, researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders both home and abroad through capturing the lessons and sharing with relevant stakeholders.
Monitoring and Evaluation
Whenever BIID is engaged in an intervention, BIID takes care to ensure to monitor activities taking place and to evaluate their impact with respect to the desired aims and goals.
Customers & Markets
The legal clients and partners of BIID are
Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development
Bangladesh Telecentre Network
International Rice Research Institute
Junior Chamber International
Future Plan of BIID
There is no specific future plan of BIID. As it has implemented some projects, its plan to complete those projects successfully, make new projects, and serve the country with ICT. The projects are
- Batighar: A business model for sustainable telecentres
After successful piloting phase, BIID has introduced the Batighar business model for scaling up in all over the country. Batighar, the name derived from the English word “lighthouse”, is meant to show people correct direction. Recently, BIID and Pacific Telecom Ltd., only CDMA operator in Bangladesh has signed agreement to establish 500 Batighar centers all over the country by 2011 and 5000 centers by 2015. This particular business model can be distinctively characterized as a structured commercial model for for-profit telecentres ventures, which, are undertaken by entrepreneurs, businesses and organizations. It can also be termed as “entrepreneurship model”.
- e-Krishok: Agricultural Services for Rural Farmers
BIID’s agricultural service for rural farmers, e-Krishok, is a campaign which is aimed at farmers with the desired goal of providing services from which farmers will benefit both in terms of their farming activities and opening up opportunities in new avenues which will ultimately translate into increased income for farmers. Farmers with any problem, query, or issue, which is related to agriculture, can go to their local GP Community Information Center and receive the information that they are seeking. The information will be provided to them in a timely and quick manner, so that the farmers can get on with their activities. With such timely and appropriate information, farmers will be able to maximize their economic gain; enabling them to achieve income growth through agricultural activities.
- e-Clinic: Bringing Quality Health Service in Rural Areas
e-Clinic: Bringing Quality Health Service in Rural Areas Telemedicine has been identified as one of the potential tool to bring quality health service in rural areas. Considering the present health care facilities in Bangladesh, BIID has taken the initiative to start an interactive healthcare facility by utilizing modern technology and telecommunications. The e-Clinic project will cover the awareness building initiatives on health care among the rural communities and will use video consultations and other ICT based tools to offer basic primary health care services in rural settings. The rural underprivileged communities, mainly the women and children groups will be served with quality health care facilities of which they are deprived most. In the pilot phase, there will is a Central Management Unit located in Dhaka equipped with ‘state of art’ technologies and qualified health professionals, and 10 Service Delivery Points at different parts of the country with basic ICT infrastructure. The rural communities will be served in a sustainable manner by offering e-health facilities with the support of existing health service providers including the health professionals working in the rural areas. Continued Medical Education (CME) will also be introduced through the network of e-Clinic
- SME: Online Advisory Service
BIID launched an integrated initiative in Bangladesh to facilitate the rapid growth of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) with the help of ICT in addressing their problem and providing suitable solution to them. Developing the ICT-based platform to offer information and services for the rural enterprises will be an effective strategy to enhance the competitiveness of the rural MSMEs who have, among others, need for information on new markets, better business practices, and business promotion ideas where technology can become the catalyst to help the enterprises access the same. Empowering through new market linkages and building capacity of the MSMEs will ultimately contribute to the growth and competitiveness in this sector. MSME portal will also be focusing on the access to finance issue as well as training facilities for the MSMEs’.
- Travel Line: Providing Information and Solutions to travelers
Travel Line is a service, which will provide tourism related information to potential tourists. Whenever a potential tourist wants information about a particular place in Bangladesh-such as what hotels are available, what the transport options are, what are the costs, how to get there, etc., that person can get in touch with Travel Line for the information, and they will be able to get the information conveniently.
- e-Complain: Providing a Platform to Promote Rights Based Activities
BIID has introduced an ICT enabled web based consumer rights advocacy portal and online complaint handling mechanism, http://www.complain.com.bd. This unique web portal will allow the consumers a distinct platform and opportunity to be vocal about their rights, concerns and issues. Simultaneously the purpose is also to raise awareness, educate and empower the consumer on consumer rights and the legal protection afforded to them under the newly promulgated `Consumer Protection Act 2008′.
- District Resource Center: Developing Local Support Services for Telecentres
BIID is the designated District Resource Center (DRC) for Dhaka district. A DRC is a district coordinating body located in a district headquarter, which is to be designed as a hub for promoting activities surrounding building information and knowledge system for all citizens. DRCs are conceptualized as independent institutions to be affiliated with the BTN. DRC is the official institution to promote and support entrepreneurs and institutions in establishment and operation of telecentres and other type of public access to information and knowledge through ICTs. To ensure sustainability and quality of services, DRC’s will charge nominal fees for its diversified services.
- GP CIC: Supporting and Scaling up of GP CICs
BIID is engaged in supporting GP with their GP Community Information Center; to replicate and expand the existing number of CIC’s across the country from 500 to over 1000. BIID is also engaged in the process to build the capacity of the CIC entrepreneurs to provide better services and facilities to the customers thereby adding value to the user experience of the customers.
Human Resource Planning (HRP)
HRP is a strategy for the acquisition, utilization, and retention of an enterprise’s human resources. It seeks to link policy and practices on day-to-day decision-making. The inter-relationship of HRP with other HR functions is a established hypothesis, as evident from corporate practices.
It is the process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure the number of skilled employees is available when they are needed.
Stages of HRP Process
There are four different stages of HRP
It is the primary stage of HRP in any organization, in this stage organization try to develop their awareness about the detailed manpower scenario with a holistic view, looking at their current manpower. A SWOT analysis can reveal a better picture with due consideration of the external environment, performance, and productivity trends, working practices, operational and strategic plans.
After adequate investigation, the next stage is analysis of demand and supply of manpower. There are different models of manpower forecasting. Manpower supply analysis is done considering both internal and external supply. Internal supply considers
- Career planning and development
- Training and development
- Succession plan
- Corporate policies and procedures (such as promotion from within as a corporate policy may or may not exist in a particular organization)
External supply considers macro level issues to understand their availability.
Demand forecasting helps in identifying requirements of manpower for various position at different points of time. What should be the status of employment (permanent, temporary, part time contract labor, sub-contracting) will depend to some extent on the nature of position.
Planning and Control of Manpower
At this stage, forecasts of manpower are translated into HR policies, which encompass all HRP related issues like recruitment, training, and development. While going for recruitment, it is necessary to understand the job descriptions, which precedes job analysis and job roles.
While doing HRP, flexibility and inter relationship of all other policies also need to be considered.
In this final stage of HRP process, success is measured in terms of achievements trend, both quantitatively and qualitatively. While quantitative achievement is visible from productivity trend, manpower cost etc. qualitative achievement is a subject appraisal on achievement of organizational objectives such as prevailing industrial relations, level of motivation and morale, grievance etc.
Time scale of HRP Forecasts
Determining the time scale of human resource forecast is very important to decide about their availability and chart the possible action to meet the requirements. Depending on the period, which again depends based on requirements, nature of analysis of the factors like demand and supply analysis, availability (internal & external) employment practices etc keeps on changing.
Time series analysis
Employment data over a time period (time series) are used under this method as the basis for manpower forecast. When we record employment levels over a time period, we observe the following five distinct elements in it.
Trend is the fluctuations in level of employment over a time period.
Changes in employment in relation to some particular event, like economic liberalization in India or WTO resolutions
Seasonal fluctuations occur more than once in a given time period like, requirements of more maintenance staff in Delhi Vidyut Board during summer and rainy season while less in winter.
This is a sudden change in employment level due to economic environment or increased market share or procurement of some new machines etc.
These are fluctuations in employment level which are random in nature, such as fluctuations do not follow any obvious pattern.
Analysis of Workload
To forecast the manpower requirements at different points of time, workload analysis extremely is important. Analysis of present and future workload depends on the possibility of quantifying the work content in every area of an organizational activity. The steps of workload analysis are:
- Classification of work
- Forecasting the number of jobs
- Converting the projected jobs in man hours
- Converting the man hours into manpower requirement
Forecasting Demand of HR
Goal of demand forecasting is to minimize the deviation. There are several quantitative methods to forecast the human resource demand in an organization.
- Simple Moving Average method
- Weighted Average method
- Exponential Smoothing
- Linear Regression Analysis
Simple Moving Average method
In simple moving average all period of past has an equal weight. By using this method, we can forecast the demand of HR for the next period. In this case, we can use the recent past data because a recent past is better indicator of future than a remote past.
Weighted Average method
In this method, the data of recent past are given more weights than the remote past. The summation of the weights of all data equals to one (1). The formula is
Decision maker makes the weights based on long-term speculation.
In moving average method, we need to carry forward a large volume of historical data. We can eliminate the need for such past records by adopting this method. This method smoothens random errors by exponentially decreasing weights to historical data.
Such weight factor is indicated by alpha (α), which is a smoothing constant, a non-linear decimal value that lies in between 0 to 1. The formula for the exponential smoothing model is
Fm=Ft + α (At-1-Ft-1)
Where, Fm = Forecasted manpower
Ft= Forecasted manpower for t period
At-1 = Forecasted manpower for the previous period
Ft-1 = Actual manpower for the previous period
Linear Regression Analysis
Linear regression is an approach to modeling the relationship between a scalar variable y and one or more variables denoted X. Most commonly, linear regression refers to a model in which the conditional mean of y given the value of X is an affine function of X.
Regression Equation(y) =a+bx
Slope (b) =
Intercept (a) =
x and y are the variables.
b = the slope of the regression line
a = the intercept point of the regression line and the y axis.
N = Number of values or elements
X = First Score
Y = Second Score
ΣXY = Sum of the product of first and Second Scores
ΣX = Sum of First Scores
ΣY = Sum of Second Scores
ΣX2 = Sum of square First Scores
The Delphi method is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method, which relies on a panel of experts.
In the standard version, the experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After each round, a facilitator provides an anonymous summary of the experts’ forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments. Thus, experts are encouraged to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of their panel. It is believed that during this process, the range of the answers will decrease and the group will converge towards the “correct” answer. Finally, the process is stopped after a pre-defined stop criterion (e.g. number of rounds, achievement of consensus, and stability of results) and the mean or median scores of the final rounds determine the results
Nominal Group Technique
The nominal group technique (NGT) is a decision-making method for use among groups of many sizes, who want to make their decision quickly, as by a vote, but want everyone’s opinions taken into account. The method of tallying is the difference. First, every member of the group gives their view of the solution, with a short explanation. Then, duplicate solutions are eliminated from the list of all solutions, and the members proceed to rank the solutions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
Some Facilitators will encourage the sharing and discussion of reasons for the choices made by each group member, thereby identifying common ground, and a plurality of ideas and approaches. This diversity often allows the creation of a hybrid idea (combining parts of two or more ideas), often found to be even better than those ideas being initially considered.
Forecasting Supply of HR
- Wastage Analysis
Manpower wastage is an element of labor turnover. It is not labor turnover directly. Wastage is severance from the organization that includes voluntary retirement, normal retirement, resignation, deaths and dismissals.
There are three different phases:
- During induction phase, marginal employees leave
- During differential transit period, an employee learns about the organization and identifies his role.
- During settled connection phase, an employee settles down and decides to stay long.
There are several methods of wastage analysis:
Labor Turnover Index
Indicates the number of leavers as percentage to average number of employees, Average number of employees employed in a given time period is decided by adding the employees at the beginning and end then dividing the same by two.
Labor Turnover = (Number of employees leaving ÷ Average no. of employees employed) × 100
This index indicates stable workforce percentage for a given period and can be computed as below:
Stability Index = (no. with more than 1 year service now ÷ Total employed one year ago) × 100
A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description, which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. Additional outcomes include recruiting plans, position postings and advertisements, and performance development planning within your performance management system. Job analysis is primary tool in personnel management. In this method, a personnel manager tries to gather, synthesize and implement the information available regarding the workforce in the concern. A personnel manager has to undertake job analysis to put right man on right job.
There are two outcomes of job analysis:
1. Job description
2. Job specification
The information collected under job analysis is:
- Nature of jobs required in a concern.
- Nature/ size of organizational structure
- Type of people required to fit that structure.
- The relationship of the job with other jobs in the concern
- Kind of qualifications and academic background required for jobs.
- Provision of physical condition to support the activities of the concern. For example- separate cabins for managers, special cabins for the supervisors, healthy condition for workers, and adequate storeroom for storekeeper.
Advantages of Job Analysis
- Job analysis helps the personnel manager at the time of recruitment and selection of right man on right job.
- It helps him to understand extent and scope of training required in that field.
- It helps in evaluating the job in which the worth of the job has to be evaluated.
- In those instances where smooth work force is required in concern.
- When he has to avoid overlapping of authority- responsibility relationship so that distortion in chain of command does not exist.
- It also helps to chalk out the compensation plans for the employees.
- It also helps the personnel manager to undertake performance appraisal effectively in a concern.
A personnel manger carries analysis in two ways:
- Job description
- Job specification
Is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job, The preparation of job description is very important before a vacancy is advertised. It tells in brief the nature and type of job. This type of document is descriptive in nature and it constitutes all those facts, which are related to a job such as:
- Title/ Designation of job and location in the concern.
- The nature of duties and operations to be performed in that job.
- The nature of authority- responsibility relationships.
- Necessary qualifications that is required for job.
- Relationship of that job with other jobs in a concern.
- The provision of physical and working condition or the work environment required in performance of that job.
Is a statement, which tells us minimum acceptable human qualities, which helps to perform a job. Job specification translates the job description into human qualifications so that a job can be performed in a better manner. Job specification helps in hiring an appropriate person for an appropriate position. The contents are:
- Job title and designation
- Educational qualifications for that title
- Physical and other related attributes
- Physique and mental health
- Special attributes and abilities
- Maturity and dependability
Recruitment & Selection
Recruitment is the process of identifying that the organization needs to employ someone up to the point at which application forms for the post have arrived at the organization. Selection then consists of the processes involved in choosing from applicants a suitable candidate to fill a post. Training consists of a range of processes involved in making sure that jobholders have the right skills, knowledge and attitudes required to help the organization to achieve its objectives. Recruiting individuals to fill particular posts within a business can be done either internally by recruitment within the firm, or externally by recruiting people from outside.
The advantages of internal recruitment are that:
1. Considerable savings can be made. Individuals with inside knowledge of how a business operates will need shorter periods of training and time for ‘fitting in’.
2. The organization is unlikely to be greatly ‘disrupted’ by someone who is used to working with others in the organization.
3. Internal promotion acts as an incentive to all staff to work harder within the organization.
4. From the firm’s point of view, the strengths and weaknesses of an insider will have been assessed. There is always a risk attached to employing an outsider who may only be a success ‘on paper’.
The disadvantages of recruiting from within are that:
1. You will have to replace the person who has been promoted
2. An insider may be less likely to make the essential criticisms required to get the company working more effectively
3. Promotion of one person in a company m
External recruitment makes it possible to draw upon a wider range of talent, and provides the opportunity to bring new experience and ideas in to the business. Disadvantages are that it is more costly and the company may end up with someone who proves to be less effective in practice than they did on paper and in the interview situation.
There are a number of stages, which can be used to define and set out the nature of particular jobs for recruitment purposes:
Job analysis is the process of examining jobs in order to identify the key requirements of each job. A number of important questions need to be explored: the title of the job to which the employee is responsible for whom the employee is responsible a simple description of the role and duties of the employee within the organization.
The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organizations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time.
A general recruitment process is as follows:
- Identify vacancy
- Prepare job description and person specification
- Advertising the vacancy
- Managing the response
- Arrange interviews
- Conducting interview and decision making
The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i.e. the final interviews and the decision-making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.
Relationship between Job Analysis, HR Planning, and Recruiting
Job analysis is the first step before doing HR planning. Once the analysis id done, then HR planning is used for recruitment and selection.
Performance Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the performance of employees and to understand the abilities of a person for further growth and development. Performance appraisal is generally done in systematic ways, which are as follows:
- The supervisors measure the pay of employees and compare it with targets and plans.
- The supervisor analyses the factors behind work performances of employees.
The employers are in position to guide the employees for a better performance.
Objectives of Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind:
- To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises, etc.
- To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job.
- To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and development.
- To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
- It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees.
- To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes.
Establishing Performance Standards
The first step in the process of performance appraisal is the setting up of the standards, which will be used to as the base to compare the actual performance of the employees. This step requires setting the criteria to judge the performance of the employees as successful or unsuccessful and the degrees of their contribution to the organizational goals and objectives. The standards set should be clear, easily understandable and in measurable terms. In case the performance of the employee cannot be measured, great care should be taken to describe the standards.
Communicating the Standards
Once set, it is the responsibility of the management to communicate the standards to all the employees of the organization. The employees should be informed and the standards should be clearly explained to them.
This will help them to understand their roles and to know what exactly is expected from them. The standards should also be communicated to the appraisers or the evaluators and if required, the standards can be modified at this stage itself according to the relevant feedback from the employees or the evaluators.
Measuring the Actual Performance
The most difficult part of the Performance appraisal process is measuring the actual performance of the employees that is the work done by the employees during the specified period of time. It is a continuous process, which involves monitoring the performance throughout the year. This stage requires the careful selection of the appropriate techniques of measurement, taking care that personal bias does not affect the outcome of the process and providing assistance rather than interfering in an employees work.
Comparing the Actual with the Desired Performance
The actual performance is compared with the desired or the standard performance. The comparison tells the deviations in the performance of the employees from the standards set. The result can show the actual performance being more than the desired performance or, the actual performance being less than the desired performance depicting a negative deviation in the organizational performance. It includes recalling, evaluating and analysis of data related to the employee performance.
The result of the appraisal is communicated and discussed with the employees on one-to-one basis. The focus of this discussion is on communication and listening. The results, the problems and the possible solutions are discussed with the aim of problem solving and reaching consensus. The feedback should be given with a positive attitude as this can have an effect on the employees’ future performance. The purpose of the meeting should be to solve the problem is faced and motivate the employees to perform better.
The last step of the process is to take decisions, which can be taken to either improve the performance of the employees, take the required corrective actions, or the related HR decisions like rewards, promotions, demotions, transfers etc.
Training & Development
It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format.
Training and Development Objectives
The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.
Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.
Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.
Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs.
Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.
The individual development planning process
The employee in partnership prepares an individual development plan with his or her supervisor. The plan is based upon the needs of the employee, the position and the organization. A good individual development plan will be interesting, achievable, practical and realistic. It is implemented with the approval of the employee’s supervisor.
- Assess your current position and your work environment
- Identify development activities
- Put your plan in action
Employee relations consist of all those areas of human resource management that involve relationships with employees-directly or through collective agreements where trade unions are recognised Relationship will be concerned with the agreement of terms and conditions of employment and with issues arising from employment. Employee relations practices include formal processes, procedures and channels of communication.
Compensation and Benefit
The area of Compensation and Benefits belongs to the most specialized areas in Human Resources Management. Compensation and Benefits usually plays the role of the HR Controlling, setting the rules and procedures around the salaries, variable pay and benefits.
Compensation and Benefits is usually the function of HRM most connected with the competitors on the market and it sets the compensation policies, which are fully competitive on the job market, but the policies still meet the targets defined by the organization.
The clear definition of processes in Compensation and Benefits is very important as the processes are under the attacks from the line management every single day. There is no a day without a pressure for the salary review at the individual employees and the rules and standards must be waterproof.
Compensation may be used to:
- Recruit and retain qualified employees.
- Develop a program outline.
- Designate an individual to oversee designing the compensation program.
- Develop a compensation philosophy.
- Conduct a job analysis of all positions.
- Evaluate jobs.
- Determine grades.
- Establish grade pricing and salary range.
- Determine an appropriate salary structure.
- Develop a salary administration policy.
- Obtain top executives’ approval of the basic salary program.
- Communicate the final program to employees and managers.
- Monitor the program.
- Increase or maintain morale/satisfaction.
- Reward and encourage peak performance.
- Achieve internal and external equity.
- Reduce turnover and encourage company loyalty.
- Modify (through negotiations) practices of unions.
Human Resource Management
Organogram: BIID has an organogram for managing its operation. In order to bring flexibility in operation, the CEO may permit interchange/restructuring of positions within the structure. The organogram for BIID is as follows:
Content of Human Resource
BIID has four types of human resources for the accomplishment of its vision and mission which are:
Regular Employee and
An employee of BIID is a person, selected through a stipulated process, irrespective of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or handicap, for performing a set of specified tasks for financial and other compensation, against an appointment letter or agreement.
The term ‘Project/Contractual Employee’ includes an employee appointed on specific terms and conditions for a specific project/program for a certain pre-defined period. Service of all full-time project/contractual employees will be guided by these rules, if conditions distinct from these are not mentioned in their appointment letter.
Consultant is a person, who is to perform specific task(s) for a specific period for financial and/or other compensation.
Intern is a person, who is still a student, or just completed graduation or post-graduation, and who is invited to some practical experience in real life job environment for a specified period. Intern is not an employee and it is not a job for financial compensation.
Contributor/Volunteer is person, who works for BIID for a specified period against an appointment letter or agreement, but not for financial compensation.
HR Planning in BIID
BIID is a service-oriented organization that has several projects to for the ICT development in every area of Bangladesh. It has implemented some projects and some are on the way to be implemented.
BIID does not have structured HR planning. It requires employee based on workload of its projects. At present, it has 20 employees who are expert in developing software, improving inter-communication technology etc. However, BIID has HR department but it does not need to forecast the demand of the human resource. When it is necessary to hire contractual employees for the projects, BIID usually use the qualitative tool of Nominal Group Technique to find out employees based on ranking from other employees.
For the supply forecasting, BIID use wastage analysis. Normally, most of the employees of BIID has settled down and decides to stay long.
- Labor Turnover Index
At the beginning of year 2011, BIID has 22 employees, while at the end it has 20. 1 has been recruited as project assistant manager. So,
Number of employees leaving = 22+1-20 = 3 employees
Average no. of employees employed = (22+1+20) ÷ 2 = 22
Labor Turnover = (3 ÷ 22) × 100 = 13.63 %
- Stability Index
Number of employees with more than 1 year = 19 and total no. of employed one year ago = 22. So,
Stability index = (19 ÷ 22) × 100 = 86.36%
Relationship of HR Planning with other HRM functions
Job analysis is the process of describing and recording aspects of jobs and specifying the skills and other requirements necessary to perform the job.
From the documents of BIID, we found their job analysis is divided into two parts.
General Qualifications and requirements (job description and person specification)
BIID recruits employees for the position(s) approved in the organogram. Qualifications, requirements and general terms and conditions of service are drawn up for all positions in the organogram Project-based appointment are streamlined according to organogram.
|Chief Executive Officer|
|Minimum Masters or equivalent with minimum 8 years of total professional experience, of which 3 years work experience as senior level management position. The CEO will define other qualifications.|
|Program Manager||Minimum Masters or equivalent with minimum 6 years of total professional experience, of which 2 years work experience as mid level management position. The recruitment committee will define other qualifications.|
|Program Officer||Minimum Masters/bachelor or equivalent with minimum 4 years of total professional experience. The recruitment committee will define other qualifications.|
|Field CEO coordinator||Minimum Masters/bachelor or equivalent with minimum 2 years of total professional experience. The recruitment committee will define other qualifications.|
|Admin Accounts Officer||Minimum Masters/bachelor or equivalent. This will be the entry position for the organization. The recruitment committee will define other qualifications.|
|Research Officer||Minimum bachelor or equivalent. This will be the entry position for the organization. The recruitment committee will define other qualifications.|
|Office Assistant/ Driver/ Guard||To be decided by the CEO (should have legal driving license for drivers)|
Recruitment, Appointment, Termination and Resignation Policy
The recruitment and appointment procedure is applicable only for all types of human resources at BIID.
Basic Principles of Appointment and Recruitment
BIID is generally an equal opportunity employer. BIID recruits and does not discriminate based on race, colour, religion, sex, national origin, age or handicap.
However, in case of equal qualification, BIID positively discriminates in favor of women and people with physical handicap.
Recruitment of CEO
As a sole proprietorship firm, the Proprietor himself will be the CEO.
Special qualifications and requirements
In this case special qualification requirements, terms and conditions will be designed case-by-case basis. The CEO will decide such design, when such need emerge.
General Procedure of recruitment
Vacancies may be filled by regular or temporary appointments, or by transfer/promotion, or by fresh recruitment.
CEO will decide for particular position(s)
A recruitment/ selection/ search committee will formed by the CEO for any position
A recruitment/ selection committee will be formed by the CEO for all positions other than CEO, if not specified otherwise elsewhere in the FIG
CEO will recruit directly for the any adhoc position up to maximum of six months for certain urgent deliverable of some project.
Recruitment notice will publish advertisement for human resource for particular position(s) through advertisement in suitable media (print and/or electronic including web site) or will perform recruiting, if appropriate.
Formal interview is compulsory for all position.
Depending on position, will fix the qualification, job responsibility and required traits for required position(s) in line with the qualifications mentioned the organogram.
Transparency in Recruitment
As a general principle, announcement of vacancies will be published in a suitable media (e.g., daily newspapers, website). CEO reserves the rights to cancel the recruitment announcement if necessary.
The appointing authority will interview each applicant who responds to a vacancy announcement. After making the selection the appointing authority will notify each applicant interviewed of the results.
An authorized person will issue an appointment letter to a selected applicant mentioning terms and conditions and job responsibilities and financial compensations.
Normal practice for all positions, a six month probationary appointment will be provided
Based on the performance of the staffs and requirement of the organization, the person successfully completed the period can be appointed regular basis or contractual basis.
Regularization of employees on probation
Regular employees who have successfully completed the probationary period designated for their classifications shall be given regular status or contractual appointment for a certain period either for one year or as per the project scope.
To meet any emergency, the CEO may make emergency appointments for the duration of the emergency or in case of specialized services without going formal process of public announcement.
Performance Evaluation and promotion
- Performance evaluation is required for promotion, extension and discontinuation
- Performance evaluation of all staffs will be done by the CEO
- Performance Evaluation of the other positions will be primarily done by the CEO and will take further action based on the recommendation
- Usual practice for promotion will follow the general qualification matrix. In case of extra ordinary performance, the CEO may offer promotion to any staff.
Resignation or termination
Resignation or termination should follow the rule described below. In all cases, timely notice or equal amount compensation or surrendering salary will be applied.
The CEO may terminate the job of an employee under probation by fifteen days notice or on payment of fifteen days pay without any notice in lieu thereof.
A 15 days notice from both sides may terminate part time contracts.
If the appointment is a full time or below one year but six months and above under a project, the notice for termination and resignation period one month applicable for either side without further notice.
If appointment is a full time or at least one year under a project, the notice for termination or resignation period is two months applicable for either side. S/he may be removed from service.
If appoint is a full time or below six months under a project, the notice for termination or resignation period is 15 days applicable for either side.
BIID will settle the benefits accrued to such employees at the time of termination.
If an employee becomes unable to discharge, the CEO giving three months notice or payment of three months’ salary in lieu thereof can terminate his /her responsibilities for physical or mental impairment his/her service.
Letter of resignation should be submitted to the CEO. Based on the decision of acceptance, the resignation will be processed through successful completion of current works, handover of all documents, and clearing with finance, then a release letter will be issued.
Though BIID has no structured HR Planning, performance appraisal is very common to this organization. BIID believes that evaluating and appraising the performance of its employees will motivate them towards more productivity. BIID follows the performance appraisal process of assessing, reviewing, planning, and developing.
BIID monitor the employees’ performance closely through questionnaire, maintaining dairy, talking with colleagues etc. BIID then judge and review the performance and develop a plan to motivate the employees to maintain the good performance and to improve their worse performance.
BIID follows the following method to motivate the employees
- Employee of the month
- Giving a small party for the honor of the best employee
Training & Development
BIID use the standard procedure of training and development. It helps the employees to get self-trained through
- Assess your current position and your work environment
- Identify development activities
- Put your plan in action
BIID also arrange training programs (seminars, projects) for the development of employees.
Employee relations of BIID consist of all those areas of human resource management that involve relationships with employees-directly or through collective agreements where trade unions are recognised Relationship will be concerned with the agreement of terms and conditions of employment and with issues arising from employment. Employee relations practices include formal processes, procedures and channels of communication.
Attendance and Leave Policy
- BIID will follow an office hour, which will start, from 0900 hours to 1700 hours.
- Usual holiday will be Friday and Saturday following the government rules. In case of the BIID holds, event or any other emergency assignments the office may remain open in holy days.
- If someone fails to attend within 0900 hours, the CEO can deal penalty on case-by-case basis to maintain good working environment in BIID.
All employees under normal circumstances should be entitled to leave as designed in the leave policy. However, when exigencies of service so required, the CEO may refuse or revoke sanctioned leave of any description. Certain types of leave are considered as right.
The submission of a leave application does not provide right for leaving the office. All employees should ensure that leave is granted before enjoying the leave. Otherwise, it will be considered as leave without permission. In such case, salary will be deduced for such leave with an amount of penalty equivalent of salary of number of days absent without permission.
The following types of leave are available for the BIID employees
- Earn leave
- Casual leave
- Medical leave
- Maternity/ paternity leave
- Consultancy leave
- Extra-ordinary leave
A regular employee, and, project/ contractual employee, consultant, serving more than one year are entitled to 1 (one) days earn leave for every thirty days of service rendered. Full pay is admissible during the earn leave. No leave shall be earned during the period spent on extraordinary leave (leave without pay).
- All employees are eligible for 12 days casual leave in a year. However, if an employee resigned or terminated within probation period or within six months of appointment (for project staffs), the leave within that period will be forfeited and the salary for the days under such provision will be deducted. If appointed for six months or less period, the number of days for casual leave will be six days.
- No employee will be eligible to avail more than 3 (three) days casual leave at a time.
- All employees are eligible for medical leave for 14 (fourteen) days in a year. Such leave will be accumulated for up to 28 days. If appointed for six months or less period, the number of days for medical leave will be 7 days.
- If no adequate medical leave is available to the credit of an employee, then the leave applied for on medical grounds (backed by a medical certificate) may be adjusted against any leave available. In case no leave of any category is available, this leave may be treated as extra-ordinary leave. However, when an employee suffers from grave illness and is under treatment is eligible for special medical leave, terms and conditions of which will be defined case-by-case basis.
- A regular or a contractual female employee who has completed 1 year service period may be granted maternity leave with full pay on production of a certificate from a registered medical practitioner subject to a maximum of 150 (one hundred and fifty) days for each birth of two children during the whole period of service. Maternity leave for the third child will be counted as extra-ordinary leave. Application for the leave must be given at least one month in advance.
- Paternity leave may be granted with full pay for a maximum of 12 (twelve) days each time for the birth of two children during the whole period of service.
Consultancy Leave may be granted to an employee, at the discretion of the CEO.
Extra-ordinary Leave: Extra-ordinary leave may be granted to an employee, at the discretion of the CEO, when no other leave is due to him/her.
Leave Application Procedure
- Employee shall apply for leave normally three days prior to the date of availing any leave addressing the CEO
- Except for sudden illness or urgent and unavoidable reasons, leave application must be submitted prior to the date of commencement of the leave and sanction of the leave must be obtained before it is available of.
Leave Application Procedure for earn leave
Applications for ten days or more of earn leave must be made at least one month in advance. Approval of earn leave will be made in chronological order, i.e., an earlier applicant will be considered before a later one, unless the CEO has to make exceptions in the interest of the Organization.
Remuneration, Compensation & Benefits
The CEO, while appointing personnel to the organization, shall decide whether the concerned employee will be put on a regular scale or should be paid a fixed consolidated salary.
All regular employees will be entitled to salaries according to the staff pay scale approved by the CEO, as shown in the table below. The pay scale can be reviewed and amended from time to time by the CEO only. For the project based employees or employee for fixed term, the salary is consolidated and decided by the CEO. The CEO may decide differently for short term or contractual employee.
Pay Scale for the Staff Compensation
If not specified in any contract, CEO will decide the salary structure based on employees qualification, experience and performance.
- For the CEO a car allowance of BDT 50% of the basic will be applied. S/he will not be eligible for regular conveyance.
- Minimum conveyance policy will be 10% of basic or BDT 500, which one is higher.
- Medical allowance policy will be 10% of basic or BDT 500, which one is higher.
An employee may be entitled to special allowances based on the decision of the CEO.
Mode of Payment
Monthly salaries and allowances will be paid by account payee cheque or by account transfer in the last week of the every month or in the paid first week of next month. For the employee appointed for short term/probationary period and for intern cash amount can be paid up to a limit of BDT 15,000.
Unless increment is explicitly withheld for inefficiency and relating to offence, misconduct or corruption, increment will be automatically effective on the each anniversary of joining BIID. Such increment is applicable only for the regular employee. Increment, is not applicable for the employees on fixed term or on contract, if not otherwise mentioned in the appointment letter. In general, the annual increment on basic salary will be at the rate of 10%. The CEO may give special increment to an employee at the time of joining based on his/her academic records, additional skills, foreign training and job experience. The CEO will determine the rate of special increment.
- Festival Bonus: All employees will get every year two festival bonuses each of which will be equal to one month basic salary or 50 % of consolidated salary, provided s/he has completed at least 06 (six) months service in the organization and remains in the service during the first earliest religious festival.
- Incentive Bonus: All staffs, working for more than six months is eligible for annual incentive bonus equal to basic pay or 50% of consolidated salary based on the performance report.
- Overtime: An employee having the rank Office Assistant/Driver/Guard will be entitled to overtime allowances for up to maximum of 80 hours per month or up to his/her one month’s basic salary whichever is lower. However, for rank of security guard overtime allowances can be offered up to 100 hours per month or not more than his/her one month’s basic salary whichever is lower.
- All employee-undertaken travels for official work within Bangladesh or outside, if not otherwise covered, will be entitled to transport allowance from the BIID.
- An employee will be paid the actual fare of travel costs subject to production of the receipts of the same.
- During field visit local transport will be applicable as actual basis subject to approval of supervisor.
|Project Manager||1st Class AC Bus/Train/ Launch|
|Regular Employees ( All )||1st Class AC Bus/Train/ Launch|
|Contractual employees ( Probation )||None AC|
Daily Subsistence Allowance
- All employees will be entitled to daily allowance (in country only) on fixed basis per day in the following manner:
|Designation||Per diem/Day (BDT)|
|Regular Staff including CEO||550|
|Project Manager/ Accounts Officer / Program / Information Officer||1,500/=|
|Call Center Agent / Administrative Assist||1,000/=|
|Contractual employees ( Probation )||400/=|
- In case of group event/s this policy will not be applicable
- All employees will be entitled to daily allowance (in abroad) on fixed basis per day in the following manner if not covered otherwise:
|Designation||Per diem/Day (USD)|
|All Regular Employees||50|
|All contractual employees||35|
- An employee will be liable for payment of income tax (if applicable) as per Income Tax Ordinance 1984 against their income earned from the BIID.
- BIID will deduct income tax at source from the monthly salary, if applicable as per Income Tax Ordinance 1984
Rights and Appeal Policy
1. Appeal against Decision of Penalty: A regular employee appointed may appeal to the CEO, against the orders given to him/her or against any penalty by the authority for consideration. In the case the employee are appointed by the CEO, the CEO will consider the appeal.
2. Appeal Procedure: No appeal under this part shall be entertained unless it is submitted to the appropriate authority within 7 (seven) days of the date of the receipt of the penalty decision by the concerned authority.
In conclusion, of findings and analysis we can say that BIID has no efficient HR department who maintains all HR related activities and manages the HRM functions with its strategic goals. However, there is lack of structured HR planning in BIID the management team is effective enough to support its mission and vision. From analysis of its relationship between HR planning with other HRM functions like job analysis, recruitment & selection, performance appraisal, training & development, employee relation, compensation & benefits we found that BIID has specific policies and procedure to maintain its human resource.
Though BIID is a new Company in the respective sector, its growth and expansion is praiseworthy. It’s contributing the country and serving the nation in different ways. If it can up hold it’s much toward advancement, it will be able to set a role model in our country.
To achieve the vision – leading through innovation, BIID should use structured HR Planning. There should be use of quantitative methods of demand forecasting of employees so that BIID can estimate its yearly expenditure, because contractual employees are usually paid higher than the regular employees. To make its HR department more efficient, BIID should implement the theoretical process of HRP.
BIID needs to provide the employee more quality work life as well as more attractive environment for working. They should keep the work environment sound and healthy for the employee to work in their own environment. Employee’s satisfaction needs to be increased by maintaining the company policy efficiently to get maximum productivity through employees’ satisfaction. Though the company has incurred loss in different projects, above all it makes profit in the current year but it needs to prevention of loss by adopting effective technology and continuous development of human resource management.
BIID is a Technology based company so for the responsibility of the society it needs to completely obey the national law and order of the Government.