The Black Francolin (Francolinus francolinus), also known as the Indian Francolin, is a game bird from the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds, in the pheasant family Phasianidae. Earlier it was known as the Black Partridge. Black Francolins are rare and exciting additions to the collection of aviary or game birds. Unlike most species of Francolin, male and feminine Black Francolins look different from one another. The males have striking black faces, which are made more dramatic because of a white cheek patch, brown crown of the head, and a bright chestnut-red neck patch. In a more hazelnut brown coloring, the black persists down the neck and is spotted in bright white over the breast with large striping and lacing across the shoulders and wings. Females are subtle but attractive with their camouflaging brown, wheaten, gray, and black barring and spotting. Females even have a chestnut-red neck patch, which provides these birds a ‘matching pair’ look. It’s a length range of 33 to 36 cm and weight approximate about 453 g (16 oz) and therefore the size of black francolin is 9 to 16 inches. the first color is black with black breast rufous belly, white spots on flanks, and golden brown spots at the rear of the body. Black francolin’s flight pattern is short, direct flight punctuated by rounded winged glides, rounded tail narrow black and white bars.
Black Francolins are adaptable birds that are present in different habitats. They seem to prefer dense forests, with nearby water sources. We prefer scrubby low-lying vegetation over forested areas, such as brushland or wooded edges. These are not woodland species, but brushland and the edges of wood associated with grassland will be common. They appear to be more closely associated to water than chukars are, and in drier areas. It largely disappeared from most of Europe and is threatened in Eastern Europe and Cyprus. In Italy, as on four of the Sandwich Islands and Guam, they need to be restored. And in Louisiana, and southern Florida, there are small populations. Francolins usually nests late March to May during a tall grassland. The most likely breeding sites within the cultivated crops are Savanna, Grasslands, Scrub vegetation areas. They have a loud call during the breeding season. The clutch size is sometimes between 8 to 14 eggs, and also the hen incubates the eggs for 18-19 days. The eggs are unusual being rounded and in a very light, creamed-coffee, almost golden, color. Black Francolins generally live a minimum of 7 years in captivity. They’re partridge-sized birds, measuring 9 to 16 inches in total length and weighing about 1-1.25 pounds. Feed primarily consists of grain, hay, fallen berries, shoots, tubers, termites, ants, and insects. May also eat small mealworms and wax worms, but be careful as they are prone to toe-picking while feeding chicks. There is a tradition of raising male Black Francolins as household pets in the areas around north India and Pakistan. The call of the black francolin, described as a loud ringing Klik cheek-cheek-cheerakik or “kik-kik-kik”, “kwee-kweeeee-kwee” is heard within the mornings and evenings and most day during the breeding season.
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